주말농장 2020. 10. 16. 08:58


초등학교 농산물 꾸러미속 미니 단호박 씨앗을 심어서 수확했어요.



em인지 소주인지 모르지만 뿌리면 잎이 마른다.
호박은 자연 스스로 성장

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주말농장 2020. 10. 16. 08:53


em 200ml매주 1회 살포
심을때 밑거름 10kg

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카테고리 없음 2020. 10. 16. 08:51


무럭 무럭 자라거라

em 500ml + 참이슬 200ml 매주 1회 살포하고있습니다.

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웹기술 2020. 7. 30. 11:07


쿠버네티스란 무엇인가?

쿠버네티스는 컨테이너화된 워크로드와 서비스를 관리하기 위한 이식할 수 있고, 확장 가능한 오픈소스 플랫폼으로, 선언적 구성과 자동화를 모두 지원한다. 쿠버네티스는 크고 빠르게 성장하는 생태계를 가지고 있다. 쿠버네티스 서비스, 지원 그리고 도구들은 광범위하게 제공된다.

이 페이지에서는 쿠버네티스 개요를 설명한다.

쿠버네티스는 컨테이너화된 워크로드와 서비스를 관리하기 위한 이식성이 있고, 확장가능한 오픈소스 플랫폼이다. 쿠버네티스는 선언적 구성과 자동화를 모두 용이하게 해준다. 쿠버네티스는 크고, 빠르게 성장하는 생태계를 가지고 있다. 쿠버네티스 서비스, 기술 지원 및 도구는 어디서나 쉽게 이용할 수 있다.

쿠버네티스란 명칭은 키잡이(helmsman)나 파일럿을 뜻하는 그리스어에서 유래했다. 구글이 2014년에 쿠버네티스 프로젝트를 오픈소스화했다. 쿠버네티스는 프로덕션 워크로드를 대규모로 운영하는 15년 이상의 구글 경험과 커뮤니티의 최고의 아이디어와 적용 사례가 결합되어 있다.

여정 돌아보기

시간이 지나면서 쿠버네티스가 왜 유용하게 되었는지 살펴보자.

전통적인 배포 시대: 초기 조직은 애플리케이션을 물리 서버에서 실행했었다. 한 물리 서버에서 여러 애플리케이션의 리소스 한계를 정의할 방법이 없었기에, 리소스 할당의 문제가 발생했다. 예를 들어 물리 서버 하나에서 여러 애플리케이션을 실행하면, 리소스 전부를 차지하는 애플리케이션 인스턴스가 있을 수 있고, 결과적으로는 다른 애플리케이션의 성능이 저하될 수 있었다. 이에 대한 해결책은 서로 다른 여러 물리 서버에서 각 애플리케이션을 실행하는 것이 있다. 그러나 이는 리소스가 충분히 활용되지 않는다는 점에서 확장 가능하지 않았으므로, 물리 서버를 많이 유지하기 위해서 조직에게 많은 비용이 들었다.

가상화된 배포 시대: 그 해결책으로 가상화가 도입되었다. 이는 단일 물리 서버의 CPU에서 여러 가상 시스템 (VM)을 실행할 수 있게 한다. 가상화를 사용하면 VM간에 애플리케이션을 격리하고 애플리케이션의 정보를 다른 애플리케이션에서 자유롭게 액세스 할 수 없으므로, 일정 수준의 보안성을 제공할 수 있다.

가상화를 사용하면 물리 서버에서 리소스를 보다 효율적으로 활용할 수 있으며, 쉽게 애플리케이션을 추가하거나 업데이트할 수 있고 하드웨어 비용을 절감할 수 있어 더 나은 확장성을 제공한다. 가상화를 통해 일련의 물리 리소스를 폐기 가능한(disposable) 가상 머신으로 구성된 클러스터로 만들 수 있다.

각 VM은 가상화된 하드웨어 상에서 자체 운영체제를 포함한 모든 구성 요소를 실행하는 하나의 완전한 머신이다.

컨테이너 개발 시대: 컨테이너는 VM과 유사하지만 격리 속성을 완화하여 애플리케이션 간에 운영체제(OS)를 공유한다. 그러므로 컨테이너는 가볍다고 여겨진다. VM과 마찬가지로 컨테이너에는 자체 파일 시스템, CPU, 메모리, 프로세스 공간 등이 있다. 기본 인프라와의 종속성을 끊었기 때문에, 클라우드나 OS 배포본에 모두 이식할 수 있다.

컨테이너는 다음과 같은 추가적인 혜택을 제공하기 때문에 인기가 있다.

  • 기민한 애플리케이션 생성과 배포: VM 이미지를 사용하는 것에 비해 컨테이너 이미지 생성이 보다 쉽고 효율적임.
  • 지속적인 개발, 통합 및 배포: 안정적이고 주기적으로 컨테이너 이미지를 빌드해서 배포할 수 있고 (이미지의 불변성 덕에) 빠르고 쉽게 롤백할 수 있다.
  • 개발과 운영의 관심사 분리: 배포 시점이 아닌 빌드/릴리스 시점에 애플리케이션 컨테이너 이미지를 만들기 때문에, 애플리케이션이 인프라스트럭처에서 분리된다.
  • 가시성은 OS 수준의 정보와 메트릭에 머무르지 않고, 애플리케이션의 헬스와 그 밖의 시그널을 볼 수 있다.
  • 개발, 테스팅 및 운영 환경에 걸친 일관성: 랩탑에서도 클라우드에서와 동일하게 구동된다.
  • 클라우드 및 OS 배포판 간 이식성: Ubuntu, RHEL, CoreOS, 온-프레미스, 주요 퍼블릭 클라우드와 어디에서든 구동된다.
  • 애플리케이션 중심 관리: 가상 하드웨어 상에서 OS를 실행하는 수준에서 논리적인 리소스를 사용하는 OS 상에서 애플리케이션을 실행하는 수준으로 추상화 수준이 높아진다.
  • 느슨하게 커플되고, 분산되고, 유연하며, 자유로운 마이크로서비스: 애플리케이션은 단일 목적의 머신에서 모놀리식 스택으로 구동되지 않고 보다 작고 독립적인 단위로 쪼개져서 동적으로 배포되고 관리될 수 있다.
  • 리소스 격리: 애플리케이션 성능을 예측할 수 있다.
  • 자원 사용량: 리소스 사용량: 고효율 고집적.

쿠버네티스가 왜 필요하고 무엇을 할 수 있나

컨테이너는 애플리케이션을 포장하고 실행하는 좋은 방법이다. 프로덕션 환경에서는 애플리케이션을 실행하는 컨테이너를 관리하고 가동 중지 시간이 없는지 확인해야한다. 예를 들어 컨테이너가 다운되면 다른 컨테이너를 다시 시작해야한다. 이 문제를 시스템에 의해 처리한다면 더 쉽지 않을까?

그것이 쿠버네티스가 필요한 이유이다! 쿠버네티스는 분산 시스템을 탄력적으로 실행하기 위한 프레임 워크를 제공한다. 애플리케이션의 확장과 장애 조치를 처리하고, 배포 패턴 등을 제공한다. 예를 들어, 쿠버네티스는 시스템의 카나리아 배포를 쉽게 관리 할 수 있다.

쿠버네티스는 다음을 제공한다.

  • 서비스 디스커버리와 로드 밸런싱 쿠버네티스는 DNS 이름을 사용하거나 자체 IP 주소를 사용하여 컨테이너를 노출할 수 있다. 컨테이너에 대한 트래픽이 많으면, 쿠버네티스는 네트워크 트래픽을 로드밸런싱하고 배포하여 배포가 안정적으로 이루어질 수 있다.
  • 스토리지 오케스트레이션 쿠버네티스를 사용하면 로컬 저장소, 공용 클라우드 공급자 등과 같이 원하는 저장소 시스템을 자동으로 탑재 할 수 있다.
  • 자동화된 롤아웃과 롤백 쿠버네티스를 사용하여 배포된 컨테이너의 원하는 상태를 서술할 수 있으며 현재 상태를 원하는 상태로 설정한 속도에 따라 변경할 수 있다. 예를 들어 쿠버네티스를 자동화해서 배포용 새 컨테이너를 만들고, 기존 컨테이너를 제거하고, 모든 리소스를 새 컨테이너에 적용할 수 있다.
  • 자동화된 빈 패킹(bin packing) 컨테이너화된 작업을 실행하는데 사용할 수 있는 쿠버네티스 클러스터 노드를 제공한다. 각 컨테이너가 필요로 하는 CPU와 메모리(RAM)를 쿠버네티스에게 지시한다. 쿠버네티스는 컨테이너를 노드에 맞추어서 리소스를 가장 잘 사용할 수 있도록 해준다.
  • 자동화된 복구(self-healing) 쿠버네티스는 실패한 컨테이너를 다시 시작하고, 컨테이너를 교체하며, '사용자 정의 상태 검사'에 응답하지 않는 컨테이너를 죽이고, 서비스 준비가 끝날 때까지 그러한 과정을 클라이언트에 보여주지 않는다.
  • 시크릿과 구성 관리 쿠버네티스를 사용하면 암호, OAuth 토큰 및 SSH 키와 같은 중요한 정보를 저장하고 관리 할 수 있다. 컨테이너 이미지를 재구성하지 않고 스택 구성에 시크릿을 노출하지 않고도 시크릿 및 애플리케이션 구성을 배포 및 업데이트 할 수 있다.

쿠버네티스가 아닌 것

쿠버네티스는 전통적인, 모든 것이 포함된 Platform as a Service(PaaS)가 아니다. 쿠버네티스는 하드웨어 수준보다는 컨테이너 수준에서 운영되기 때문에, PaaS가 일반적으로 제공하는 배포, 스케일링, 로드 밸런싱과 같은 기능을 제공하며, 사용자가 로깅, 모니터링 및 알림 솔루션을 통합할 수 있다. 하지만, 쿠버네티스는 모놀리식(monolithic)이 아니어서, 이런 기본 솔루션이 선택적이며 추가나 제거가 용이하다. 쿠버네티스는 개발자 플랫폼을 만드는 구성 요소를 제공하지만, 필요한 경우 사용자의 선택권과 유연성을 지켜준다.

쿠버네티스는:

  • 지원하는 애플리케이션의 유형을 제약하지 않는다. 쿠버네티스는 상태 유지가 필요 없는(stateless) 워크로드, 상태 유지가 필요한(stateful) 워크로드, 데이터 처리를 위한 워크로드를 포함해서 극단적으로 다양한 워크로드를 지원하는 것을 목표로 한다. 애플리케이션이 컨테이너에서 구동될 수 있다면, 쿠버네티스에서도 잘 동작할 것이다.
  • 소스 코드를 배포하지 않으며 애플리케이션을 빌드하지 않는다. 지속적인 통합과 전달과 배포, 곧 CI/CD 워크플로우는 조직 문화와 취향에 따를 뿐만 아니라 기술적인 요구사항으로 결정된다.
  • 애플리케이션 레벨의 서비스를 제공하지 않는다. 애플리케이션 레벨의 서비스에는 미들웨어(예, 메시지 버스), 데이터 처리 프레임워크(예, Spark), 데이터베이스(예, MySQL), 캐시 또는 클러스터 스토리지 시스템(예, Ceph) 등이 있다. 이런 컴포넌트는 쿠버네티스 상에서 구동될 수 있고, 쿠버네티스 상에서 구동 중인 애플리케이션이 Open Service Broker 와 같은 이식 가능한 메커니즘을 통해 접근할 수도 있다.
  • 로깅, 모니터링 또는 경보 솔루션을 포함하지 않는다. 개념 증명을 위한 일부 통합이나, 메트릭을 수집하고 노출하는 메커니즘을 제공한다.
  • 기본 설정 언어/시스템(예, Jsonnet)을 제공하거나 요구하지 않는다. 선언적 명세의 임의적인 형식을 목적으로 하는 선언적 API를 제공한다.
  • 포괄적인 머신 설정, 유지보수, 관리, 자동 복구 시스템을 제공하거나 채택하지 않는다.
  • 추가로, 쿠버네티스는 단순한 오케스트레이션 시스템이 아니다. 사실, 쿠버네티스는 오케스트레이션의 필요성을 없애준다. 오케스트레이션의 기술적인 정의는 A를 먼저 한 다음, B를 하고, C를 하는 것과 같이 정의된 워크플로우를 수행하는 것이다. 반면에, 쿠버네티스는 독립적이고 조합 가능한 제어 프로세스들로 구성되어 있다. 이 프로세스는 지속적으로 현재 상태를 입력받은 의도한 상태로 나아가도록 한다. A에서 C로 어떻게 갔는지는 상관이 없다. 중앙화된 제어도 필요치 않다. 이로써 시스템이 보다 더 사용하기 쉬워지고, 강력해지며, 견고하고, 회복력을 갖추게 되며, 확장 가능해진다.

https://kubernetes.io/ko/

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미완성 인생 2020. 7. 11. 09:32


비만오면 베란다에 물이 흘러 이상하다 생각했는데


창틀 실리콘이 떨어져 동아 줄이되어 있었다.

깨끗히 청소후에 실리콘을 처리했습니다.

한번에 물청소를 할수가 없었다.

우선 실리콘을 제거후 먼지를 진공청소기로 하고
비오는날 물청소했다. 수.목.금.토.일 장마라는데...이런
토요일 새벽 찔끔오고 말았다.
엄청나게 드러운상태였다.



실리콘 1개반사용
실리콘총?
실리콘 헤드한개 사용.
두루마리휴지 반
장갑 1


떨어질까봐 신경썼더니 팔이 후덜덜하다


급 피곤 모드로 치우지못하고 쉬었다.
마무리가 중요한데...

posted by 수수 파인진

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미완성 인생 2020. 7. 8. 17:36


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=08QX2ntp8ys

 

일 푼의 깜냥도 아닌 것이
눈 어둔 권력에 알랑대니
콩고물의 완장을 차셨네
진보의 힘 자신을 키웠다네

아이러니 왜이러니 죽쒀서 개줬니
아이러니 다이러니 다를게 없잖니
꺼져라! 기회주의자여

끼리끼리 모여 환장해 춤추네
싸구려 천지 자뻑의 잔치뿐
중독은 달콤해 멈출 수가 없어
쩔어 사시네 서글픈 관종이여

아이러니 왜이러니 죽쒀서 개줬니
아이러니 다이러니 다를게 없잖니
꺼져라! 기회주의자여

아이러니 왜이러니 죽쒀서 개줬니
아이러니 다이러니 다를게 없잖니
잘가라! 기회주의자여

 

와~ 오랜만에 들어 봅니다. 대학이후 바쁘다고 삶에 매진하다 보니 잊고 지냈는데.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PvsDmfSsflg

 

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리눅스 2020. 7. 3. 11:31


force index, ignore index

특정 인덱스를 사용하도록 강제로 지정

select * from TABLE force index(index_key)

특정 인덱스를 사용하지 않도록 지정

select * from TABLE ignore index(index_key)

옵티마이져가 판단을 하지 못하는 경우 설정합니다.

posted by 수수 파인진

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주말농장 2020. 7. 3. 10:32


전/묘 가 뭔가 찾아 봤더니 묘가 있다는 내용이었군요. 이 밭어디에 묘가 있어나? 있다는건가?

 

지목의 종류

[전] – 전

물을 대지 아니하고 곡물·원예작물(과수류를 제외한다)·약초·뽕나무·닥나무·묘목·관상수등의 식물을 주로 재배하는 토지와 식용을 목적으로 죽순을 재배하는 토지는 “전”으로 한다.

[답] – 답

물을 직접 이용하여 벼·연·미나리·왕골등의 식물을 주로 재배하는 토지는 “답”으로 한다.

[과] – 과수원

일정한 구역을 정하여 사과·배·밤·호도나무등 과수류를 집단적으로 재배하는 토지와 이에 접속된 저장고등 부속시설물의 부지는 “과수원”으로 한다. 다만, 주거용 건축물의 부지는 “대”로 한다.

[목] – 목장용지

일정한 구역을 정하여 축산업 및 낙농업을 목적으로 가축을 사육하거나 사육하기 위하여 조성한 초지 또는 축산법 제2조제1호의 규정에 의한 가축을 사육하는 축사등 부속시설물의 부지는 “목장용지”로 한다. 다만, 주거용 건축물의 부지는 “대”로 한다.

[임] – 임야

산림 및 원야를 이루고 있는 수림지·죽림지·암석지·자갈땅·모래땅·습지·황무지와 간석지등은 “임야”로 한다.

[광] – 광천지

지하에서 온수·약수·석유류등이 용출되는 용출구 및 그 유지를 위한 부지는 “광천지”로 한다. 다만, 온수·약수·석유류등을 일정한 장소로 운송하는 송수관· 송유관 및 저장시설의 부지를 제외한다.

[염] – 염전

바닷물을 끌어들여 소금을 채취하는 토지와 이에 접속된 제염장등 부속시설물의 부지는 “염전”으로 한다. 다만, 천일제염방식에 의하지 아니하고 동력에 의하여 바닷물을 끌어들여 소금을 만드는 제조공장시설의 부지를 제외한다.

[대] – 대지

영구적 건축물중 주거·사무실·점포와 박물관·극장·미술관등 문화시설과 이에 접속된 부속시설물의 부지 및 정원과 도시계획사업등 관계법령에 의한 택지조성사업을 목적으로 하는 공사가 준공된 토지는 “대”로한다.

[장] – 공장용지

제조업을 목적으로 하는 공장시설물의 부지와 관계법령에 의한 공장부지 조성을 목적으로 하는 공사가 준공된 토지와 당해 토지와 같은 구역안에 있는 의료시설등 부속시설물의 부지는 “공장용지”로 한다.

[학] – 학교용지

일정한 구역내의 학교의 교사와 이에 접속된 부속시설물의 부지 및 체육장등은 “학교용지”로 한다.

[차] – 주차장

자동차 등의 주차에 필요한 독립적인 시설을 갖춘 부지와 주차전용 건축물 및 이에 접속된 부속시설물의 부지는”주차장”으로 한다. 다만, 다음에 해당하는 시설의 부지는 제외 – 주차장법 제2조제1호 가목 및 다목의 규정에 의한 노상주차장 및 부설주차장 – 자동차 등의 판매목적으로 설치된 물류장 및 야외전시장

[주] – 주유소용지

석유ㆍ석유제품 또는 액화석유가스 등의 판매를 위하여 일정한 설비를 갖춘 시설물의 부지와, 저유소 및 원유저장소의 부지와 이에 접속된 부속시설물의 부지, 다만, 자동차ㆍ선박ㆍ기차등의 제작 또는 정비공장안에 설치된 급유ㆍ송유시설 등의 부지는 제외

[창] – 창고용지

물건등의 보관 또는 저장하기 위하여 독립적으로 설치된 보관시설물의 부지와 이에 접속된 부속시설물의 부지

[도] – 도로

일반공중의 교통운수를 목적으로 보행 또는 차량운행에 필요한 일정한 설비 또는 형태를 갖추어 이용되는 토지와 관계법령에 의하여 도로로 개설된 토지 또는 2필지 이상의 대에 진입하는 통로로 이용되는 토지는 “도로”로 한다.

[철] – 철도용지

교통운수를 목적으로 하여 일정한 궤도등의 설비와 형태를 갖추어 이용되는 토지와 이에 접속된 역사·차고·발전시설 및 공작창등 부속시설물의 부지는 “철도용지”로 한다.

[천] – 하천

자연의 유수가 있거나 있을 것으로 예상되는 토지는 “하천”으로 한다. 다만, 그 규모가 특히 작은 것은 “구거”로 한다.

[제] – 제방

방수제·방조제·방파제·방사제등으로 조수·자연유수·모래·바람등을 막기위하여 설치된 둑의 부지는 “제방”으로 한다.

[구] – 구거

용수·배수를 목적으로 하여 일정한 형태를 갖춘 인공적인 수로·둑 및 그 부속시설물의 부지와 자연의 유수가 있거나 있을 것으로 예상되는 소규모 수로는 “구거”로 한다.

[유] – 유지

일정한 구역내에 물이 고이거나 상시적으로 물을 저장하고 있는 댐·저수지·소류지·호수·양어장·연못등의 토지와 연·왕골등이 자생하는 배수가 잘되지 아니하는 토지는 “유지”로 한다.

[양] – 양어장

육상에 인공으로 조성된 수산생물의 번식 또는 양식을 위한 시설을 갖춘 부지와 이에 접속된 부속시설물의 부지

[수] – 수도용지

물을 정수하여 공급하기 위한 취수·저수·도수·정수·송수 및 배수시설의 부지 및 이에 접속된 부속시설물의 부지와 수도관의 매설부지는 “수도용지”로 한다.

[공] – 공원

일반공중의 보건·휴양 및 정서생활을 향상시키기 위하여 일정한 구역내에 필요한 시설을 갖춘 토지로서 도시계획법에 의하여 공원으로 결정·고시된 토지와 도시공원법에 의하여 도시공원 및 녹지로 지정된 토지는 “공원”으로 한다. 다만, 도시공원법에 묘지공원으로 결정·고시된 토지는 “묘지”로 한다.

[체] – 체육용지

국민의 건강증진과 여가선용에 이용할 목적으로 일정한 구역내에 체육활동에 적합한 시설과 형태를 갖춘 종합운동장·실내체육관·야구장·골프장·스키장· 승마장·경륜장 등 체육시설의 토지와 이에 접속된 부속시설물의 부지는 “체육용지”로 한다. 다만, 체육시설로서의 영속성과 독립성이 미흡한 정구장· 골프연습장·실내수영장·체육도장등, 유수를 이용한 요트장·카누장등,산림을 이용한 야영장등의 토지를 제외한다.

[원] – 유원지

일반공중을 위하여 위락·휴양등에 적합한 시설물을 종합적으로 갖춘 수영장·유선장· 낚시터·어린이놀이터·동물원·식물원·민속촌·경마장등의 토지와 이에 접속된 부속시설물의 부지는 “유원지”로 한다. 다만, 이들 시설과의 거리등으로 보아 독립적인 것으로 인정되는 숙식시설 및 유기장의 부지와 하천·구거 또는 유지(공유의 것에 한한다)로 분류되는 것은 제외한다.

[종] – 종교용지

일반공중의 종교의식을 목적으로 예배·법요·설교·제사등을 하기 위한 교회·사찰·향교등 건축물의 부지와 이에 접속된 부속시설물의 부지는 “종교용지”로한다.

[사] – 사적지

문화재로 지정된 역사적인 유적·고적·기념물등을 보존할 목적으로 구획된 토지는 “사적지”로 한다. 다만, 유적·고적·기념물등이 학교용지·공원·종교용지등의 구역 안에 있는 경우를 제외한다.

[묘] – 묘지

사람의 시체나 유골이 매장된 토지와 이에 접속된 부속시설물의 부지는 “묘지”로 한다. 다만, 묘지의 관리를 위한 건축물의 부지는 “대”로 한다.

[잡] – 잡종지

갈대밭, 물건을 쌓아 두는 곳, 돌을 캐내는 곳, 흙을 파내는 곳, 야외시장, 비행장, 공동우물과 영구적 건축물중 변전소, 송신소, 수신소, 주차시설, 납골당, 유류저장 시설, 송유시설, 주유소(가스충전소를 포함한다), 도축장, 자동차운전학원, 쓰레기 및 오물처리장등의 부지와 다른 지목에 속하지 아니하는 토지는 “잡종지”로 한다. 다만, 원상회복을 조건으로 돌을 캐내는 곳 또는 흙을 파내는 곳으로 허가된 토지를 제외한다.

 

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미완성 인생 2020. 6. 25. 23:42


이제품을 출시할때 사고 받고나서 500G하드 2개 미러링 사용할려고했는데.
되는게 없었다.
부팅도 잘안되 디스크 미러도 안되
데이터 복사중 꺼져
복구도안되
부팅하는데 일주일 걸리고
끄면 다시 처음부터 켜두면 먼 어느날 접속이되는데 데이터를 복사하다 환장한다
100M 이더넷을 왜 넣었는지 모뎀을달지
usb복사도 속터져
되는게 없는 인생에 첫쓰레기를 샀다.

상상도하기 싫은 완전 쓰레기를 구매했다.
성질버려 시간버려 눈치보여 숨겨뒀다.

일주일을 세상욕을 다하면서 처박아둔 제품을 이제야 분리수거중... 아! 알루미늄 때문에 비쌌구나.
무게가 엄청났다 재활용 비용이 좋을까?

분리하고 있는데. 또한소리를 들었네. 아! 이거 그때사서 안되서 세상욕하다 안쓰고 버리냐고 소리듣고 짜증나고

쓰레기는 안사는게 좋다.
아. 신중하게 꼭 100번 1000본 후기보면서 사겠습니다.

버리는 이 순간 장마로 비가온다.

posted by 수수 파인진

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나만그런가? 2020. 6. 24. 18:05


며칠간 뜨겁던 날이 이어지더니..
비가 온다는 말과 함께 내려간 기온이 부르는
커피 한잔~
평소 같았으면 아이스를 주문했겠지만!
비오니까!! 뜨거운걸로 ㅎㅎ

커피는 아메리카노~

매장에서 마시고 싶지만 이 시국에!!!
테이크아웃!

믹스커피를 좋아하던 나는
캬라멜 마끼아또에 눈을 뜨고
마끼아또가 달다는 것을 깨닫는 순간
라떼를 즐겨마시다가...
언젠가부터 라떼를 마시면 화장실과 친구가 되니..
이제는 오로지.. 아!메!리!카!노!
뭐 이젠 쓴맛에 나름 익숙해져서 괜찮다.
커피는 하루 한잔 꼬옥 ~!!!!!! 하하하

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posted by 수수 파인진

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리눅스 2020. 6. 24. 14:29


youtube-dl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oUOh0SyVqsU

설치

방법1

sudo pip install youtube_dl

방법2  

sudo wget http://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl -O /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
sudo chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl

방법3

sudo curl -L https://yt-dl.org/downloads/latest/youtube-dl -o /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
sudo chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl 

 

실행

youtube-dl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oUOh0SyVqsU
posted by 수수 파인진

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미완성 인생 2020. 6. 24. 10:22


Crucial m4 512GB 2.5-Inch (9.5mm) SATA 6Gb/s Solid State Drive CT512M4SSD2

 

 

 

 

2011 발매 당시 엄청난 가격을 주고 구매를 하였다.

빠른 데이터 복사와 보관을 위해 사용하였지만 윈도우에 최적화 되었는지 리눅스에서 문제가 많은 제품이었다.

데이터를 보관이후 4~5년이 지나 데이터를 조회 하기 위해 연결하였지만 깜깜이였다.

A/S 업체는 변경되었고/관리 회사도 변경되서 미치는줄 알았다.

물론 수리도 되지 않았다.

그냥 버려야 했다.

혹시나 하는 마음에 보관을 했지만 가망이 없었다.  2020.06.24 최종 사망선고를 하고 재활용 으로 버렸다.

마지막 모습입니다.


A/S는 안되더라도 교환되는 국산을 사용하겠다.


posted by 수수 파인진

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리눅스 2020. 6. 24. 10:11


설치

sudo apt install smartmontools

 

사용법

sudo smartctl -i /dev/sdd
SMARTCTL(8)                 SMART Monitoring Tools                 SMARTCTL(8)

NAME
       smartctl - Control and Monitor Utility for SMART Disks

SYNOPSIS
       smartctl [options] device

DESCRIPTION
       [This man page is generated for the Linux version of smartmontools.  It
       does not contain info specific to other platforms.]

       smartctl controls the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting  Technol‐
       ogy  (SMART)  system  built into most ATA/SATA and SCSI/SAS hard drives
       and solid-state drives.  The purpose of SMART is to monitor the  relia‐
       bility  of  the hard drive and predict drive failures, and to carry out
       different types of drive self-tests.  smartctl also supports some  fea‐
       tures  not  related  to  SMART.  This version of smartctl is compatible
       with ACS-3, ACS-2, ATA8-ACS, ATA/ATAPI-7  and  earlier  standards  (see
       REFERENCES below).

       smartctl also provides support for polling TapeAlert messages from SCSI
       tape drives and changers.

       The user must specify the device to be controlled  or  interrogated  as
       the  final  argument to smartctl. The command set used by the device is
       often derived from the device path but may  need  help  with  the  ´-d´
       option (for more information see the section on "ATA, SCSI command sets
       and SAT" below). Device paths are as follows:

       LINUX:   Use  the  forms  "/dev/sd[a-z]"  for  ATA/SATA  and   SCSI/SAS
                devices.   For  SCSI  Tape  Drives and Changers with TapeAlert
                support use the devices "/dev/nst*" and "/dev/sg*".  For disks
                behind  3ware  controllers  you  may  need  "/dev/sd[a-z]"  or
                "/dev/twe[0-9]",  "/dev/twa[0-9]"  or   "/dev/twl[0-9]":   see
                details  below.  For  disks  behind  HighPoint RocketRAID con‐
                trollers you may need "/dev/sd[a-z]".  For disks behind  Areca
                SATA  RAID  controllers,  you  need  "/dev/sg[2-9]" (note that
                smartmontools interacts with the Areca controllers via a  SCSI
                generic  device  which  is different than the SCSI device used
                for reading and writing data)!  For HP Smart Array  RAID  con‐
                trollers,  there are three currently supported drivers: cciss,
                hpsa, and hpahcisr.  For disks accessed via the  cciss  driver
                the  device  nodes are of the form "/dev/cciss/c[0-9]d0".  For
                disks accessed via the hpahcisr and hpsa drivers,  the  device
                nodes  you  need are "/dev/sg[0-9]*".  ("lsscsi -g" is helpful
                in determining which scsi generic device node  corresponds  to
                which  device.)   Use the nodes corresponding to the RAID con‐
                trollers, not the nodes corresponding to logical drives.   See
                the  -d option below, as well.  Use the forms "/dev/nvme[0-9]"
                (broadcast  namespace)  or  "/dev/nvme[0-9]n[1-9]"   (specific
                namespace 1-9) for NVMe devices.

       if  ´-´  is specified as the device path, smartctl reads and interprets
       it's own debug output from standard input.  See ´-r ataioctl´ below for
       details.

       Based  on  the device path, smartctl will guess the device type (ATA or
       SCSI).  If necessary, the ´-d´ option can  be  used  to  override  this
       guess

       Note that the printed output of smartctl displays most numerical values
       in base 10 (decimal), but some values are displayed in base  16  (hexa‐
       decimal).  To distinguish them, the base 16 values are always displayed
       with a leading "0x", for example: "0xff". This  man  page  follows  the
       same convention.

OPTIONS
       The  options  are grouped below into several categories.  smartctl will
       execute  the  corresponding  commands  in   the   order:   INFORMATION,
       ENABLE/DISABLE, DISPLAY DATA, RUN/ABORT TESTS.

       SHOW INFORMATION OPTIONS:

       -h, --help, --usage
              Prints a usage message to STDOUT and exits.

       -V, --version, --copyright, --license
              Prints  version,  copyright, license, home page and SVN revision
              information for your copy of smartctl to STDOUT and then  exits.
              Please  include  this  information  if you are reporting bugs or
              problems.

       -i, --info
              Prints the device model number, serial number, firmware version,
              and  ATA  Standard  version/revision  information.   Says if the
              device supports SMART, and if so, whether SMART support is  cur‐
              rently  enabled  or  disabled.   If  the device supports Logical
              Block Address mode (LBA mode) print current user drive  capacity
              in bytes. (If drive is has a user protected area reserved, or is
              "clipped", this may be smaller than the potential maximum  drive
              capacity.)  Indicates if the drive is in the smartmontools data‐
              base (see ´-v´ options below).  If so, the  drive  model  family
              may also be printed. If ´-n´ (see below) is specified, the power
              mode of the drive is printed.

              [NVMe] [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and Cygwin only] [NEW EXPERIMEN‐
              TAL  SMARTCTL  FEATURE]  For  NVMe  devices  the  information is
              obtained from the Identify Controller and the Identify Namespace
              data structure.

       --identify[=[w][nvb]]
              [ATA  only]  Prints  an  annotated  table of the IDENTIFY DEVICE
              data.  By default, only valid words (words not equal  to  0x0000
              or  0xffff)  and  nonzero bits and bit fields are printed.  This
              can be changed by the optional argument which consists of one or
              two  characters  from the set ´wnvb´.  The character ´w´ enables
              printing of all 256 words. The character ´n´ suppresses printing
              of  bits, ´v´ enables printing of all bits from valid words, ´b´
              enables printing of all bits.  For example ´--identify=n´ (valid
              words, no bits) produces the shortest output and ´--identify=wb´
              (all words, all bits) produces the longest output.

       -a, --all
              Prints all SMART information about the disk, or TapeAlert infor‐
              mation about the tape drive or changer.  For ATA devices this is
              equivalent to
              ´-H -i -c -A -l error -l selftest -l selective´
              and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
              ´-H -i -A -l error -l selftest´.
              For NVMe, this is equivalent to
              ´-H -i -c -A -l error'.
              Note that for ATA disks  this  does  not  enable  the  non-SMART
              options  and  the SMART options which require support for 48-bit
              ATA commands.

       -x, --xall
              Prints all SMART and non-SMART information about the device. For
              ATA devices this is equivalent to
              ´-H -i -g all -c -A -f brief -l xerror,error -l xselftest,selftest
              -l selective -l directory -l scttemp -l scterc -l devstat -l sataphy´.
              and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
              ´-H -i -A -l error -l selftest -l background -l sasphy´.
              For NVMe, this is equivalent to
              ´-H -i -c -A -l error'.

       --scan Scans  for  devices and prints each device name, device type and
              protocol ([ATA] or [SCSI]) info.  May  be  used  in  conjunction
              with  ´-d  TYPE´  to  restrict the scan to a specific TYPE.  See
              also info about platform specific device scan and the DEVICESCAN
              directive on smartd(8) man page.

       --scan-open
              Same as --scan, but also tries to open each device before print‐
              ing device info.  The device open may change the device type due
              to autodetection (see also ´-d test´).

              This option can be used to create a draft smartd.conf file.  All
              options after ´--´ are appended to each output line.  For  exam‐
              ple:
              smartctl --scan-open -- -a -W 4,45,50 -m admin@work > smartd.conf

              [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL  SMARTCTL FEATURE] Multiple ´-d TYPE´ options
              may be  specified  with  ´--scan[-open]´  to  combine  the  scan
              results of more than one TYPE.

       -g NAME, --get=NAME
              Get  non-SMART  device settings.  See ´-s, --set´ below for fur‐
              ther info.

       RUN-TIME BEHAVIOR OPTIONS:

       -q TYPE, --quietmode=TYPE
              Specifies that smartctl should run in one of the two quiet modes
              described here.  The valid arguments to this option are:

              errorsonly  - only print: For the ´-l error´ option, if nonzero,
              the number of errors recorded in the SMART  error  log  and  the
              power-on  time when they occurred; For the ´-l selftest´ option,
              errors recorded in  the  device  self-test  log;  For  the  ´-H´
              option,  SMART  "disk failing" status or device Attributes (pre-
              failure or usage) which failed either now or in  the  past;  For
              the  ´-A´ option, device Attributes (pre-failure or usage) which
              failed either now or in the past.

              silent - print no output.  The only way to learn about what  was
              found  is  to  use  the exit status of smartctl (see EXIT STATUS
              below).

              noserial - Do not print the serial number of the device.

       -d TYPE, --device=TYPE
              Specifies the type of the device.  The valid arguments  to  this
              option are:

              auto  - attempt to guess the device type from the device name or
              from controller type info provided by the  operating  system  or
              from a matching USB ID entry in the drive database.  This is the
              default.

              test - prints the guessed type, then opens the device and prints
              the  (possibly  changed)  TYPE name and then exists without per‐
              forming any further commands.

              ata - the device type is ATA.  This prevents smartctl from issu‐
              ing SCSI commands to an ATA device.

              scsi  -  the  device  type is SCSI.  This prevents smartctl from
              issuing ATA commands to a SCSI device.

              nvme[,NSID] - [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows  and  Cygwin  only]  [NEW
              EXPERIMENTAL  SMARTCTL  FEATURE]  the device type is NVM Express
              (NVMe).  The optional parameter NSID specifies the namespace  id
              (in hex) passed to the driver.  Use 0xffffffff for the broadcast
              namespace  id.   The  default  for  NSID  is  the  namespace  id
              addressed by the device name.

              sat[,auto][,N]  -  the  device  type  is SCSI to ATA Translation
              (SAT).  This is for ATA disks that have a SCSI to  ATA  Transla‐
              tion  (SAT) Layer (SATL) between the disk and the operating sys‐
              tem.  SAT defines two ATA PASS THROUGH  SCSI  commands,  one  12
              bytes  long  and the other 16 bytes long.  The default is the 16
              byte variant which can be overridden with either ´-d sat,12´  or
              ´-d sat,16´.

              If  ´-d  sat,auto´  is  specified, device type SAT (for ATA/SATA
              disks) is only used if the SCSI  INQUIRY  data  reports  a  SATL
              (VENDOR:  "ATA     ").  Otherwise device type SCSI (for SCSI/SAS
              disks) is used.

              usbcypress - this device type is for ATA disks that are behind a
              Cypress USB to PATA bridge.  This will use the ATACB proprietary
              scsi pass through command.  The default SCSI operation  code  is
              0x24,  but  although  it  can  be  overridden  with  ´-d  usbcy‐
              press,0xN´, where N is the scsi operation code,  you're  running
              the risk of damage to the device or filesystems on it.

              usbjmicron[,p][,x][,PORT]  -  this device type is for SATA disks
              that are behind a JMicron USB to PATA/SATA bridge.   The  48-bit
              ATA  commands  (required e.g. for ´-l xerror´, see below) do not
              work with all of these bridges and  are  therefore  disabled  by
              default.   These  commands  can be enabled by ´-d usbjmicron,x´.
              If two disks are connected to a bridge with two ports, an  error
              message  is  printed  if  no PORT is specified.  The port can be
              specified by ´-d usbjmicron[,x],PORT´ where PORT is  0  (master)
              or  1  (slave).  This is not necessary if the device uses a port
              multiplier to connect multiple disks to  one  port.   The  disks
              appear  under separate /dev/ice names then.  CAUTION: Specifying
              ´,x´ for a device which does  not  support  it  results  in  I/O
              errors  and  may  disconnect the drive.  The same applies if the
              specified PORT does not exist or is not connected to a disk.

              The Prolific PL2507/3507 USB bridges with older firmware support
              a pass-through command similar to JMicron and work with ´-d usb‐
              jmicron,0´.  Newer Prolific firmware requires a modified command
              which can be selected by ´-d usbjmicron,p´.  Note that this does
              not yet support the SMART status command.

              usbprolific - [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL  FEATURE]  this  device
              type   is   for   SATA   disks   that   are  behind  a  Prolific
              PL2571/2771/2773/2775 USB to SATA bridge.

              usbsunplus - this device type is for SATA disks that are  behind
              a SunplusIT USB to SATA bridge.

              marvell  -  [Linux only] interact with SATA disks behind Marvell
              chip-set controllers  (using  the  Marvell  rather  than  libata
              driver).

              megaraid,N  -  [Linux  only]  the device consists of one or more
              SCSI/SAS disks connected to a MegaRAID controller.  The non-neg‐
              ative  integer  N  (in  the range of 0 to 127 inclusive) denotes
              which disk on the controller is monitored.  Use syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d megaraid,2 /dev/sda
              smartctl -a -d megaraid,0 /dev/sdb
              smartctl -a -d megaraid,0 /dev/bus/0
              This interface will also work for Dell PERC controllers.  It  is
              possible  to  set  RAID  device name as /dev/bus/N, where N is a
              SCSI bus number.

              The following entry in /proc/devices must exist:
              For PERC2/3/4 controllers: megadevN
              For PERC5/6 controllers: megaraid_sas_ioctlN

              aacraid,H,L,ID - [Linux, Windows and Cygwin only]  [NEW  EXPERI‐
              MENTAL  SMARTCTL  FEATURE]  the  device  consists of one or more
              SCSI/SAS disks connected to an AacRaid controller.  The non-neg‐
              ative  integers  H,L,ID (Host number, Lun, ID) denote which disk
              on the controller is monitored.  Use syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d aacraid,0,0,2 /dev/sda
              smartctl -a -d aacraid,1,0,4 /dev/sdb

              On Linux, the following entry in /proc/devices must exist:  aac.
              Character  device nodes /dev/aacH (H=Host number) are created if
              required.

              3ware,N - [FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of one or
              more  ATA  disks connected to a 3ware RAID controller.  The non-
              negative integer N (in  the  range  from  0  to  127  inclusive)
              denotes  which  disk on the controller is monitored.  Use syntax
              such as:
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,2 /dev/sda  [Linux only]
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twa0
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twl0 [Linux only]
              smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/tws0 [FreeBSD only]
              The first two forms,  which  refer  to  devices  /dev/sda-z  and
              /dev/twe0-15, may be used with 3ware series 6000, 7000, and 8000
              series controllers that use the 3x-xxxx driver.  Note  that  the
              /dev/sda-z form is deprecated starting with the Linux 2.6 kernel
              series and may not be supported by the Linux kernel in the  near
              future.   The  final form, which refers to devices /dev/twa0-15,
              must be used with 3ware 9000 series controllers, which  use  the
              3w-9xxx driver.

              The  devices /dev/twl0-15 [Linux] or /dev/tws0-15 [FreeBSD] must
              be used with the 3ware/LSI 9750 series controllers which use the
              3w-sas driver.

              Note  that  if  the special character device nodes /dev/tw[ls]?,
              /dev/twa?  and /dev/twe? do not exist, or exist with the  incor‐
              rect  major or minor numbers, smartctl will recreate them on the
              fly.  Typically /dev/twa0 refers to the first  9000-series  con‐
              troller,  /dev/twa1 refers to the second 9000 series controller,
              and so on.  The /dev/twl0  devices  refers  to  the  first  9750
              series  controller,  /dev/twl1 resfers to the second 9750 series
              controller, and so on.  Likewise /dev/twe0 refers to  the  first
              6/7/8000-series  controller,  /dev/twe1  refers  to  the  second
              6/7/8000 series controller, and so on.

              Note that for the 6/7/8000  controllers,  any  of  the  physical
              disks  can  be queried or examined using any of the 3ware's SCSI
              logical device  /dev/sd?   entries.   Thus,  if  logical  device
              /dev/sda  is made up of two physical disks (3ware ports zero and
              one) and logical device /dev/sdb is made up of two other  physi‐
              cal  disks  (3ware ports two and three) then you can examine the
              SMART data on any of the four physical disks using  either  SCSI
              device  /dev/sda or /dev/sdb.  If you need to know which logical
              SCSI device a particular physical disk (3ware port)  is  associ‐
              ated  with, use the dmesg or SYSLOG output to show which SCSI ID
              corresponds to a particular 3ware unit, and then use  the  3ware
              CLI or 3dm tool to determine which ports (physical disks) corre‐
              spond to particular 3ware units.

              If the value of N corresponds to a port that does not  exist  on
              the 3ware controller, or to a port that does not physically have
              a disk attached to it, the behavior of smartctl depends upon the
              specific  controller model, firmware, Linux kernel and platform.
              In some cases you will get a warning  message  that  the  device
              does  not  exist.   In  other  cases  you will be presented with
              ´void´ data for a non-existent device.

              Note that if the /dev/sd? addressing form is  used,  then  older
              3w-xxxx  drivers do not pass the "Enable Autosave" (´-S on´) and
              "Enable Automatic Offline" (´-o on´) commands to the  disk,  and
              produce  these  types of harmless syslog error messages instead:
              "3w-xxxx: tw_ioctl(): Passthru size (123392) too big".  This can
              be fixed by upgrading to version 1.02.00.037 or later of the 3w-
              xxxx driver, or by applying a patch to older versions.  Alterna‐
              tively, use the character device /dev/twe0-15 interface.

              The  selective  self-test  functions  (´-t select,A-B´) are only
              supported using the  character  device  interface  /dev/twl0-15,
              /dev/tws0-15,  /dev/twa0-15  and  /dev/twe0-15.   The  necessary
              WRITE LOG commands can not be passed through the SCSI interface.

              areca,N - [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and Cygwin only]  the  device
              consists  of  one  or more SATA disks connected to an Areca SATA
              RAID controller.  The positive integer N (in the range from 1 to
              24 inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored.
              On Linux use syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d areca,2 /dev/sg2
              smartctl -a -d areca,3 /dev/sg3
              The first line above addresses the  second  disk  on  the  first
              Areca RAID controller.  The second line addresses the third disk
              on the second Areca RAID controller.  To help identify the  cor‐
              rect device on Linux, use the command:
              cat /proc/scsi/sg/device_hdr /proc/scsi/sg/devices
              to  show  the  SCSI generic devices (one per line, starting with
              /dev/sg0).  The correct SCSI  generic  devices  to  address  for
              smartmontools  are  the ones with the type field equal to 3.  If
              the incorrect device is addressed, please read the warning/error
              messages  carefully.   They  should  provide  hints  about  what
              devices to use.

              Important: the Areca controller must have firmware version  1.46
              or later.  Lower-numbered firmware versions will give (harmless)
              SCSI error messages and no SMART information.

              areca,N/E - [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and Cygwin only] the device
              consists  of one or more SATA or SAS disks connected to an Areca
              SAS RAID controller.  The integer N (range 1 to 128) denotes the
              channel  (slot)  and  E  (range  1  to 8) denotes the enclosure.
              Important: This requires Areca SAS controller  firmware  version
              1.51 or later.

              cciss,N - [FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of one or
              more SCSI/SAS or SATA disks  connected  to  a  cciss  RAID  con‐
              troller.   The non-negative integer N (in the range from 0 to 15
              inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored.

              To look at disks behind HP Smart Array controllers,  use  syntax
              such as:
              smartctl -a -d cciss,0 /dev/cciss/c0d0    (cciss driver under Linux)
              smartctl -a -d cciss,0 /dev/sg2    (hpsa or hpahcisr drivers under Linux)

              hpt,L/M/N  - [FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of one
              or more ATA disks  connected  to  a  HighPoint  RocketRAID  con‐
              troller.   The  integer L is the controller id, the integer M is
              the channel number, and the integer N is the PMPort number if it
              is  available.   The  allowed values of L are from 1 to 4 inclu‐
              sive, M are from 1 to 128 inclusive and N from 1 to 4 if  PMPort
              available.   And  also  these values are limited by the model of
              the HighPoint RocketRAID controller.  Use syntax such as:
              smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda    (under Linux)
              smartctl -a -d hpt,1/2/3 /dev/sda    (under Linux)
              Note that the /dev/sda-z form should be the  device  node  which
              stands  for the disks derived from the HighPoint RocketRAID con‐
              trollers under Linux and under  FreeBSD,  it  is  the  character
              device    which   the   driver   registered   (eg,   /dev/hptrr,
              /dev/hptmv6).

       -T TYPE, --tolerance=TYPE
              [ATA only] Specifies how tolerant smartctl should be of ATA  and
              SMART command failures.

              The  behavior  of  smartctl  depends upon whether the command is
              "optional" or "mandatory". Here "mandatory" means  "required  by
              the ATA Specification if the device implements the SMART command
              set" and "optional" means "not required by the ATA Specification
              even  if  the  device  implements  the  SMART command set."  The
              "mandatory" ATA and SMART commands are: (1) ATA IDENTIFY DEVICE,
              (2)   SMART   ENABLE/DISABLE   ATTRIBUTE   AUTOSAVE,  (3)  SMART
              ENABLE/DISABLE, and (4) SMART RETURN STATUS.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              normal - exit on failure of any  mandatory  SMART  command,  and
              ignore  all  failures  of  optional SMART commands.  This is the
              default.  Note  that  on  some  devices,  issuing  unimplemented
              optional SMART commands doesn´t cause an error.  This can result
              in misleading smartctl messages such as "Feature  X  not  imple‐
              mented", followed shortly by "Feature X: enabled".  In most such
              cases, contrary to the final message, Feature X is not enabled.

              conservative - exit on failure of any optional SMART command.

              permissive - ignore  failure(s)  of  mandatory  SMART  commands.
              This option may be given more than once.  Each additional use of
              this option  will  cause  one  more  additional  failure  to  be
              ignored.   Note that the use of this option can lead to messages
              like "Feature X not supported", followed shortly by  "Feature  X
              enable failed".  In a few such cases, contrary to the final mes‐
              sage, Feature X is enabled.

              verypermissive - equivalent to giving a large number of ´-T per‐
              missive´  options:  ignore  failures  of any number of mandatory
              SMART commands.  Please see the note above.

       -b TYPE, --badsum=TYPE
              [ATA only] Specifies the action smartctl should take if a check‐
              sum error is detected in the: (1) Device Identity Structure, (2)
              SMART Self-Test Log Structure, (3) SMART Attribute Value  Struc‐
              ture,  (4) SMART Attribute Threshold Structure, or (5) ATA Error
              Log Structure.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              warn - report the incorrect checksum but carry on  in  spite  of
              it.  This is the default.

              exit - exit smartctl.

              ignore - continue silently without issuing a warning.

       -r TYPE, --report=TYPE
              Intended  primarily  to help smartmontools developers understand
              the behavior of smartmontools on non-conforming or  poorly  con‐
              forming  hardware.   This  option  reports  details  of smartctl
              transactions with the device.  The option can be  used  multiple
              times.   When  used  just once, it shows a record of the ioctl()
              transactions with the device.  When used  more  than  once,  the
              detail  of  these  ioctl()  transactions are reported in greater
              detail.  The valid arguments to this option are:

              ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.

              ataioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.

              scsiioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with SCSI  devices.
              Invoking this once shows the SCSI commands in hex and the corre‐
              sponding status. Invoking it a second time adds a hex listing of
              the first 64 bytes of data send to, or received from the device.

              nvmeioctl  -  [FreeBSD,  Linux,  Windows  and  Cygwin only] [NEW
              EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] report only ioctl()  transactions
              with NVMe devices.

              Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the level
              of detail that should be reported.  The argument should be  fol‐
              lowed  by a comma then the integer with no spaces.  For example,
              ataioctl,2 The default level is 1, so ´-r  ataioctl,1´  and  ´-r
              ataioctl´ are equivalent.

              For testing purposes, the output of ´-r ataioctl,2´ can later be
              parsed by smartctl itself if ´-´ is used as  device  path  argu‐
              ment.   The ATA command input parameters, sector data and return
              values are reconstructed from the debug report read from  stdin.
              Then  smartctl  internally simulates an ATA device with the same
              behaviour. This is does not work for SCSI devices yet.

       -n POWERMODE, --nocheck=POWERMODE
              [ATA only] Specifies if smartctl should exit  before  performing
              any  checks  when  the  device is in a low-power mode. It may be
              used to prevent a disk from being spun-up by smartctl. The power
              mode  is  ignored by default.  A nonzero exit status is returned
              if the device is in one of the specified  low-power  modes  (see
              EXIT STATUS below).

              Note: If this option is used it may also be necessary to specify
              the device type with the ´-d´ option.  Otherwise the device  may
              spin up due to commands issued during device type autodetection.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              never  -  check  the  device always, but print the power mode if
              ´-i´ is specified.

              sleep - check the device unless it is in SLEEP mode.

              standby - check the device unless it  is  in  SLEEP  or  STANDBY
              mode.   In  these  modes  most disks are not spinning, so if you
              want to prevent a disk from spinning up, this is  probably  what
              you want.

              idle  -  check the device unless it is in SLEEP, STANDBY or IDLE
              mode.  In the IDLE state, most disks are still spinning, so this
              is probably not what you want.

       SMART FEATURE ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS:

              Note:  if multiple options are used to both enable and disable a
              feature, then both the  enable  and  disable  commands  will  be
              issued.   The  enable  command  will always be issued before the
              corresponding disable command.

       -s VALUE, --smart=VALUE
              Enables or disables SMART on device.   The  valid  arguments  to
              this option are on and off.  Note that the command ´-s on´ (per‐
              haps used with with the ´-o on´ and ´-S on´ options)  should  be
              placed  in  a  start-up  script for your machine, for example in
              rc.local or rc.sysinit. In principle the SMART feature  settings
              are  preserved  over  power-cycling,  but  it doesn´t hurt to be
              sure. It is not necessary (or useful) to enable SMART to see the
              TapeAlert messages.

       -o VALUE, --offlineauto=VALUE
              [ATA  only]  Enables  or  disables SMART automatic offline test,
              which scans the drive every four hours for  disk  defects.  This
              command  can be given during normal system operation.  The valid
              arguments to this option are on and off.

              Note that the SMART automatic offline test command is listed  as
              "Obsolete"  in every version of the ATA and ATA/ATAPI Specifica‐
              tions.  It was originally part of  the  SFF-8035i  Revision  2.0
              specification,  but  was  never  part  of any ATA specification.
              However it is implemented and used by  many  vendors.   You  can
              tell if automatic offline testing is supported by seeing if this
              command enables and disables it, as indicated by the ´Auto  Off‐
              line  Data  Collection´  part  of  the SMART capabilities report
              (displayed with ´-c´).

              SMART provides three basic categories  of  testing.   The  first
              category,  called "online" testing, has no effect on the perfor‐
              mance of the device.  It is turned on by the ´-s on´ option.

              The second category of testing is called "offline" testing. This
              type  of test can, in principle, degrade the device performance.
              The ´-o on´ option causes this offline  testing  to  be  carried
              out, automatically, on a regular scheduled basis.  Normally, the
              disk will suspend offline testing while disk accesses are taking
              place, and then automatically resume it when the disk would oth‐
              erwise be idle, so in practice it has little effect.  Note  that
              a one-time offline test can also be carried out immediately upon
              receipt of a user command.  See the ´-t offline´  option  below,
              which  causes  a one-time offline test to be carried out immedi‐
              ately.

              The choice (made by the SFF-8035i and ATA specification authors)
              of  the  word testing for these first two categories is unfortu‐
              nate, and often leads to confusion.  In  fact  these  first  two
              categories  of  online  and offline testing could have been more
              accurately described as online and offline data collection.

              The results of this automatic or immediate offline testing (data
              collection) are reflected in the values of the SMART Attributes.
              Thus, if problems or errors are detected, the  values  of  these
              Attributes will go below their failure thresholds; some types of
              errors may also appear in the SMART error log. These are visible
              with the ´-A´ and ´-l error´ options respectively.

              Some  SMART  attribute  values  are updated only during off-line
              data collection activities; the rest are updated  during  normal
              operation of the device or during both normal operation and off-
              line testing.  The Attribute value table produced  by  the  ´-A´
              option  indicates this in the UPDATED column.  Attributes of the
              first type are labeled "Offline" and Attributes  of  the  second
              type are labeled "Always".

              The  third  category of testing (and the only category for which
              the word ´testing´ is really an appropriate  choice)  is  "self"
              testing.   This  third  type  of test is only performed (immedi‐
              ately) when a command to run it is issued.  The  ´-t´  and  ´-X´
              options  can  be  used  to  carry out and abort such self-tests;
              please see below for further details.

              Any errors detected in the self testing will  be  shown  in  the
              SMART  self-test  log, which can be examined using the ´-l self‐
              test´ option.

              Note: in this manual page, the word "Test" is used in connection
              with  the second category just described, e.g. for the "offline"
              testing.  The words "Self-test" are used in connection with  the
              third category.

       -S VALUE, --saveauto=VALUE
              [ATA]  Enables  or disables SMART autosave of device vendor-spe‐
              cific Attributes. The valid arguments to this option are on  and
              off.   Note  that  this  feature  is preserved across disk power
              cycles, so you should only need to issue it once.

              The ATA standard does not specify  a  method  to  check  whether
              SMART  autosave  is  enabled.  Unlike  SCSI (below), smartctl is
              unable to print a warning if autosave is disabled.

              [SCSI] For SCSI devices this toggles the  value  of  the  Global
              Logging  Target  Save  Disabled  (GLTSD) bit in the Control Mode
              Page. Some disk manufacturers set this bit by default. This pre‐
              vents  error counters, power-up hours and other useful data from
              being placed in non-volatile storage, so  these  values  may  be
              reset  to zero the next time the device is power-cycled.  If the
              GLTSD bit is set then ´smartctl -a´ will issue a warning. Use on
              to  clear  the GLTSD bit and thus enable saving counters to non-
              volatile storage. For extreme streaming-video type  applications
              you might consider using off to set the GLTSD bit.

       -g NAME, --get=NAME, -s NAME[,VALUE], --set=NAME[,VALUE]
              Gets/sets  non-SMART  device  settings.   Note  that the ´--set´
              option shares its short option ´-s´ with ´--smart´.  Valid argu‐
              ments are:

              all - Gets all values. This is equivalent to
              ´-g aam -g apm -g lookahead -g security -g wcache´

              aam[,N|off]  -  [ATA only] Gets/sets the Automatic Acoustic Man‐
              agement (AAM) feature (if supported).  A value of 128  sets  the
              most  quiet  (slowest)  mode and 254 the fastest (loudest) mode,
              ´off´ disables AAM.  Devices may  support  intermediate  levels.
              Values  below  128 are defined as vendor specific (0) or retired
              (1 to 127).  Note that the AAM feature was declared obsolete  in
              ATA ACS-2 Revision 4a (Dec 2010).

              apm[,N|off] - [ATA only] Gets/sets the Advanced Power Management
              (APM) feature on device (if supported).  If a  value  between  1
              and  254  is provided, it will attempt to enable APM and set the
              specified value, ´off´ disables APM.  Note the  actual  behavior
              depends  on  the  drive,  for example some drives disable APM if
              their value is set above 128.  Values below 128 are supposed  to
              allow  drive  spindown,  values  128 and above adjust only head-
              parking frequency, although the actual behavior defined is  also
              vendor-specific.

              lookahead[,on|off]  -  [ATA  only] Gets/sets the read look-ahead
              feature (if supported).  Read look-ahead is usually  enabled  by
              default.

              security  -  [ATA  only] Gets the status of ATA Security feature
              (if supported).  If ATA Security is enabled an ATA user password
              is set.  The drive will be locked on next reset then.

              security-freeze - [ATA only] Sets ATA Security feature to frozen
              mode.  This prevents that the drive accepts  any  security  com‐
              mands  until  next reset.  Note that the frozen mode may already
              be set by BIOS or OS.

              standby,[N|off] - [ATA only] Sets the standby  (spindown)  timer
              and  places  the  drive in the IDLE mode.  A value of 0 or ´off´
              disables the standby timer.  Values from 1 to 240 specify  time‐
              outs  from 5 seconds to 20 minutes in 5 second increments.  Val‐
              ues from 241 to 251 specify timeouts from 30 minutes to 330 min‐
              utes  in  30 minute increments.  Value 252 specifies 21 minutes.
              Value 253 specifies a vendor specific  time  between  8  and  12
              hours.   Value  255  specifies  21 minutes and 15 seconds.  Some
              drives may use a vendor specific interpretation for the  values.
              Note  that  there  is no get option because ATA standards do not
              specify a method to read the standby timer.

              standby,now - [ATA only] Places the drive in the  STANDBY  mode.
              This  usually  spins down the drive.  The setting of the standby
              timer is not affected.

              wcache[,on|off] - [ATA] Gets/sets the volatile write cache  fea‐
              ture  (if  supported).   The  write  cache is usually enabled by
              default.

              wcache[,on|off] - [SCSI]  Gets/sets  the  ´Write  Cache  Enable´
              (WCE) bit (if supported).  The write cache is usually enabled by
              default.

              wcreorder[,on|off] - [ATA only] Gets/sets Write  Cache  Reorder‐
              ing.  If it is disabled (off), disk write scheduling is executed
              on a first-in-first-out (FIFO) basis. If Write Cache  Reordering
              is  enabled (on), then disk write scheduling may be reordered by
              the drive. If write cache is disabled, the current  Write  Cache
              Reordering  state  is remembered but has no effect on non-cached
              writes, which are always written in  the  order  received.   The
              state  of  Write Cache Reordering has no effect on either NCQ or
              LCQ queued commands.

              rcache[,on|off] - [SCSI only] Gets/sets the ´Read Cache Disable´
              (RCE) bit.  ´Off´ value disables read cache (if supported).  The
              read cache is usually enabled by default.

       SMART READ AND DISPLAY DATA OPTIONS:

       -H, --health
              Prints the health status of the device or pending TapeAlert mes‐
              sages.

              If  the  device reports failing health status, this means either
              that the device has already failed, or that it is predicting its
              own  failure within the next 24 hours.  If this happens, use the
              ´-a´ option to get more information, and get your data  off  the
              disk and to someplace safe as soon as you can.

              [ATA] Health status is obtained by checking the (boolean) result
              returned by the SMART RETURN STATUS command.  The  return  value
              of this ATA command may be unknown due to limitations or bugs in
              some layer (e.g. RAID controller or USB bridge firmware) between
              disk  and  operating  system.   In  this case, smartctl prints a
              warning and checks whether any Prefailure SMART Attribute  value
              is less than or equal to its threshold (see ´-A´ below).

              [SCSI]  Health  status  is  obtained  by checking the Additional
              Sense Code (ASC) and Additional Sense Code Qualifier (ASCQ) from
              Informal  Exceptions  (IE)  log  page (if supported) and/or from
              SCSI sense data.

              [SCSI tape drive or changer] TapeAlert  status  is  obtained  by
              reading  the TapeAlert log page.  Please note that the TapeAlert
              log page flags are cleared for the initiator when  the  page  is
              read.   This  means  that  each alert condition is reported only
              once by smartctl for each initiator for each activation  of  the
              condition.

              [NVMe] [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and Cygwin only] [NEW EXPERIMEN‐
              TAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] NVMe status is  obtained  by  reading  the
              "Critical Warning" byte from the SMART/Health Information log.

       -c, --capabilities
              [ATA]  Prints  only  the generic SMART capabilities.  These show
              what SMART features are implemented  and  how  the  device  will
              respond to some of the different SMART commands.  For example it
              shows if the device logs errors, if it supports offline  surface
              scanning,  and  so  on.  If the device can carry out self-tests,
              this option also shows the estimated time required to run  those
              tests.

              Note  that  the  time  required to run the Self-tests (listed in
              minutes) are fixed.  However the time required to run the  Imme‐
              diate  Offline Test (listed in seconds) is variable.  This means
              that if you issue a command to perform an Immediate Offline test
              with the ´-t offline´ option, then the time may jump to a larger
              value and then count down as the Immediate Offline Test is  car‐
              ried  out.   Please see REFERENCES below for further information
              about the the flags and capabilities described by this option.

              [NVMe] [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and Cygwin only] [NEW EXPERIMEN‐
              TAL  SMARTCTL  FEATURE]  Prints various NVMe device capabilities
              obtained from the Identify Controller and the Identify Namespace
              data structure.

       -A, --attributes
              [ATA]  Prints  only  the  vendor specific SMART Attributes.  The
              Attributes are numbered from 1 to 253 and  have  specific  names
              and ID numbers. For example Attribute 12 is "power cycle count":
              how many times has the disk been powered up.

              Each Attribute has a "Raw"  value,  printed  under  the  heading
              "RAW_VALUE",  and a "Normalized" value printed under the heading
              "VALUE".  [Note: smartctl prints these values in  base-10.]   In
              the  example  just given, the "Raw Value" for Attribute 12 would
              be the actual number of times that  the  disk  has  been  power-
              cycled,  for example 365 if the disk has been turned on once per
              day for exactly one year.  Each vendor uses their own  algorithm
              to convert this "Raw" value to a "Normalized" value in the range
              from 1 to 254.  Please keep in mind that smartctl  only  reports
              the  different  Attribute  types, values, and thresholds as read
              from the device.  It does not carry out the  conversion  between
              "Raw"  and  "Normalized"  values:  this  is  done  by the disk´s
              firmware.

              The conversion from Raw value to a quantity with physical  units
              is  not specified by the SMART standard. In most cases, the val‐
              ues printed by smartctl are sensible.  For example the  tempera‐
              ture Attribute generally has its raw value equal to the tempera‐
              ture in Celsius.  However in some cases vendors use unusual con‐
              ventions.  For example the Hitachi disk on my laptop reports its
              power-on hours in minutes, not hours. Some IBM disks track three
              temperatures rather than one, in their raw values.  And so on.

              Each  Attribute  also has a Threshold value (whose range is 0 to
              255) which is printed under the heading "THRESH".  If  the  Nor‐
              malized value is less than or equal to the Threshold value, then
              the Attribute is said to have failed.  If  the  Attribute  is  a
              pre-failure Attribute, then disk failure is imminent.

              Each  Attribute also has a "Worst" value shown under the heading
              "WORST".  This is the smallest (closest to failure)  value  that
              the disk has recorded at any time during its lifetime when SMART
              was enabled.  [Note however that some vendors firmware may actu‐
              ally   increase   the   "Worst"   value   for  some  "rate-type"
              Attributes.]

              The Attribute table printed  out  by  smartctl  also  shows  the
              "TYPE"  of  the  Attribute.  Attributes  are one of two possible
              types: Pre-failure or Old age.  Pre-failure Attributes are  ones
              which, if less than or equal to their threshold values, indicate
              pending disk failure.  Old age, or usage  Attributes,  are  ones
              which  indicate end-of-product life from old-age or normal aging
              and wearout, if the Attribute value is less than or equal to the
              threshold.   Please  note: the fact that an Attribute is of type
              'Pre-fail' does not mean that your disk is about  to  fail!   It
              only  has  this  meaning  if  the Attribute´s current Normalized
              value is less than or equal to the threshold value.

              If the Attribute´s current Normalized  value  is  less  than  or
              equal to the threshold value, then the "WHEN_FAILED" column will
              display "FAILING_NOW". If not, but the worst recorded  value  is
              less than or equal to the threshold value, then this column will
              display "In_the_past".  If the "WHEN_FAILED" column has no entry
              (indicated  by  a  dash: ´-´) then this Attribute is OK now (not
              failing) and has also never failed in the past.

              The table column labeled "UPDATED" shows if the SMART  Attribute
              values  are  updated  during  both normal operation and off-line
              testing, or only during offline testing.  The former are labeled
              "Always" and the latter are labeled "Offline".

              So  to  summarize:  the  Raw  Attribute values are the ones that
              might have a real physical interpretation, such as  "Temperature
              Celsius",  "Hours",  or  "Start-Stop Cycles".  Each manufacturer
              converts these, using their detailed  knowledge  of  the  disk´s
              operations  and failure modes, to Normalized Attribute values in
              the range 1-254.  The current and  worst  (lowest  measured)  of
              these  Normalized Attribute values are stored on the disk, along
              with a Threshold value that the manufacturer has determined will
              indicate that the disk is going to fail, or that it has exceeded
              its design age or aging limit.  smartctl does not calculate  any
              of the Attribute values, thresholds, or types, it merely reports
              them from the SMART data on the device.

              Note that starting with ATA/ATAPI-4, revision 4, the meaning  of
              these  Attribute  fields has been made entirely vendor-specific.
              However most newer ATA/SATA disks seem to respect their meaning,
              so we have retained the option of printing the Attribute values.

              Solid-state  drives  use  different  meanings  for  some  of the
              attributes.  In this case the attribute name printed by smartctl
              is  incorrect  unless  the drive is already in the smartmontools
              drive database.

              [SCSI] For SCSI devices the "attributes" are obtained  from  the
              temperature and start-stop cycle counter log pages. Certain ven‐
              dor specific attributes are listed if recognised. The attributes
              are  output  in a relatively free format (compared with ATA disk
              attributes).

              [NVMe] [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and Cygwin only] [NEW EXPERIMEN‐
              TAL  SMARTCTL  FEATURE]  For  NVMe  devices  the  attributes are
              obtained from the SMART/Health Information log.

       -f FORMAT, --format=FORMAT
              [ATA only] Selects the output format of the attributes:

              old - Old smartctl format. This is the default unless  the  ´-x´
              option is specified.

              brief  -  New  format  which fits into 80 colums (except in some
              rare cases).  This format also decodes four additional attribute
              flags.  This is the default if the '-x´ option is specified.

              hex,id - Print all attribute IDs as hexadecimal numbers.

              hex,val - Print all normalized values as hexadecimal numbers.

              hex - Same as ´-f hex,id -f hex,val´.

       -l TYPE, --log=TYPE
              Prints  either the SMART Error Log, the SMART Self-Test Log, the
              SMART Selective Self-Test Log [ATA only], the Log Directory [ATA
              only],  or  the  Background  Scan  Results Log [SCSI only].  The
              valid arguments to this option are:

              error - [ATA] prints the Summary SMART error log.   SMART  disks
              maintain  a  log of the most recent five non-trivial errors. For
              each of these errors, the disk power-on lifetime  at  which  the
              error  occurred  is  recorded,  as  is  the device status (idle,
              standby, etc) at the time of the error.  For some  common  types
              of errors, the Error Register (ER) and Status Register (SR) val‐
              ues are decoded and printed as text. The meanings of these are:
                 ABRT:  Command ABoRTed
                 AMNF:  Address Mark Not Found
                 CCTO:  Command Completion Timed Out
                 EOM:   End Of Media
                 ICRC:  Interface Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) error
                 IDNF:  IDentity Not Found
                 ILI:   (packet command-set specific)
                 MC:    Media Changed
                 MCR:   Media Change Request
                 NM:    No Media
                 obs:   obsolete
                 TK0NF: TracK 0 Not Found
                 UNC:   UNCorrectable Error in Data
                 WP:    Media is Write Protected
              In addition, up to the last  five  commands  that  preceded  the
              error are listed, along with a timestamp measured from the start
              of the corresponding power cycle. This is displayed in the  form
              Dd+HH:MM:SS.msec  where D is the number of days, HH is hours, MM
              is minutes, SS is seconds and msec is milliseconds.  [Note: this
              time  stamp wraps after 2^32 milliseconds, or 49 days 17 hours 2
              minutes and 47.296 seconds.]  The key  ATA  disk  registers  are
              also  recorded in the log.  The final column of the error log is
              a text-string description of the ATA command defined by the Com‐
              mand  Register  (CR) and Feature Register (FR) values.  Commands
              that are obsolete in the most current spec are listed like this:
              READ LONG (w/ retry) [OBS-4], indicating that the command became
              obsolete with or in the  ATA-4  specification.   Similarly,  the
              notation  [RET-N] is used to indicate that a command was retired
              in the ATA-N specification.  Some commands are  not  defined  in
              any version of the ATA specification but are in common use none‐
              theless; these are marked [NS], meaning non-standard.

              The ATA Specification (ATA  ACS-2  Revision  7,  Section  A.7.1)
              says: "Error log data structures shall include, but are not lim‐
              ited to, Uncorrectable errors, ID Not Found errors for which the
              LBA  requested  was valid, servo errors, and write fault errors.
              Error log data structures shall not include errors attributed to
              the receipt of faulty commands."  The definitions of these terms
              are:
              UNC (UNCorrectable): data is uncorrectable.  This refers to data
              which  has  been  read  from  the  disk, but for which the Error
              Checking  and  Correction  (ECC)  codes  are  inconsistent.   In
              effect, this means that the data can not be read.
              IDNF (ID Not Found): user-accessible address could not be found.
              For READ LOG type commands, IDNF can also indicate that a device
              data log structure checksum was incorrect.

              If  the  command  that caused the error was a READ or WRITE com‐
              mand, then the Logical Block Address (LBA) at  which  the  error
              occurred  will  be printed in base 10 and base 16.  The LBA is a
              linear address, which  counts  512-byte  sectors  on  the  disk,
              starting  from  zero.   (Because of the limitations of the SMART
              error log, if the LBA is greater than 0xfffffff, then either  no
              error  log  entry will be made, or the error log entry will have
              an incorrect LBA. This may happen for  drives  with  a  capacity
              greater  than 128 GiB or 137 GB.) On Linux systems the smartmon‐
              tools web page has instructions about how  to  convert  the  LBA
              address  to  the  name of the disk file containing the erroneous
              disk sector.

              Please note that some manufacturers ignore  the  ATA  specifica‐
              tions,  and make entries in the error log if the device receives
              a command which is not implemented or is not valid.

              error - [SCSI] prints the error counter  log  pages  for  reads,
              write  and verifies.  The verify row is only output if it has an
              element other than zero.

              error[,NUM] - [NVMe] [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and  Cygwin  only]
              [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] prints the NVMe Error Infor‐
              mation log.  Only the 16 most recent log entries are printed  by
              default.   This  number can be changed by the optional parameter
              NUM.  The maximum number of log entries is vendor  specific  (in
              the range from 1 to 256 inclusive).

              xerror[,NUM][,error] - [ATA only] prints the Extended Comprehen‐
              sive SMART error log (General Purpose Log address 0x03).  Unlike
              the  Summary SMART error log (see ´-l error´ above), it provides
              sufficient space to log the contents of the 48-bit LBA  register
              set introduced with ATA-6.  It also supports logs with more than
              one sector.  Each sector holds up to 4 log entries.  The  actual
              number of log sectors is vendor specific.

              Only the 8 most recent error log entries are printed by default.
              This number can be changed by the optional parameter NUM.

              If ',error' is appended and  the  Extended  Comprehensive  SMART
              error  log  is not supported, the Summary SMART self-test log is
              printed.

              Please note that recent drives may report  errors  only  in  the
              Extended Comprehensive SMART error log.  The Summary SMART error
              log may be reported as supported but is always empty then.

              selftest - [ATA] prints the SMART self-test log.  The disk main‐
              tains  a  self-test  log  showing the results of the self tests,
              which can be run using the ´-t´  option  described  below.   For
              each of the most recent twenty-one self-tests, the log shows the
              type of test (short or extended, off-line or  captive)  and  the
              final status of the test.  If the test did not complete success‐
              fully, then the percentage of the test remaining is shown.   The
              time  at  which  the  test took place, measured in hours of disk
              lifetime, is also printed. [Note: this time  stamp  wraps  after
              2^16  hours,  or 2730 days and 16 hours, or about 7.5 years.] If
              any errors were detected, the Logical Block Address (LBA) of the
              first  error  is  printed in decimal notation.  On Linux systems
              the smartmontools web page has instructions about how to convert
              this  LBA  address  to  the name of the disk file containing the
              erroneous block.

              selftest - [SCSI] the self-test log for  a  SCSI  device  has  a
              slightly  different  format than for an ATA device.  For each of
              the most recent twenty self-tests, it shows the type of test and
              the  status  (final  or in progress) of the test. SCSI standards
              use the terms "foreground" and "background" (rather  than  ATA´s
              corresponding  "captive"  and "off-line") and "short" and "long"
              (rather than ATA´s  corresponding  "short"  and  "extended")  to
              describe  the  type  of the test.  The printed segment number is
              only relevant when a test fails in the third or later test  seg‐
              ment.  It identifies the test that failed and consists of either
              the number of the segment that failed during the  test,  or  the
              number  of the test that failed and the number of the segment in
              which the test  was  run,  using  a  vendor-specific  method  of
              putting  both  numbers  into  a  single byte.  The Logical Block
              Address (LBA) of the first error is printed in hexadecimal nota‐
              tion.   On Linux systems the smartmontools web page has instruc‐
              tions about how to convert this LBA address to the name  of  the
              disk file containing the erroneous block.  If provided, the SCSI
              Sense Key (SK), Additional Sense Code (ASC) and Additional Sense
              Code Qualifier (ASQ) are also printed. The self tests can be run
              using the ´-t´ option described below (using the ATA test termi‐
              nology).

              xselftest[,NUM][,selftest]  -  [ATA  only]  prints  the Extended
              SMART self-test log (General Purpose Log address  0x07).  Unlike
              the  SMART  self-test log (see ´-l selftest´ above), it supports
              48-bit LBA and logs with more  than  one  sector.   Each  sector
              holds  up to 19 log entries. The actual number of log sectors is
              vendor specific.

              Only the 25 most recent log entries are printed by default. This
              number can be changed by the optional parameter NUM.

              If  ',selftest' is appended and the Extended SMART self-test log
              is not supported, the old SMART self-test log is printed.

              selective - [ATA only] Please see the ´-t select´  option  below
              for  a description of selective self-tests.  The selective self-
              test log shows the start/end Logical Block  Addresses  (LBA)  of
              each  of the five test spans, and their current test status.  If
              the span is being tested or the remainder of the disk  is  being
              read-scanned,  the  current  65536-sector  block  of  LBAs being
              tested is also displayed.   The  selective  self-test  log  also
              shows  if  a read-scan of the remainder of the disk will be car‐
              ried out after the selective self-test has  completed  (see  ´-t
              afterselect´  option)  and the time delay before restarting this
              read-scan if it is interrupted (see ´-t pending´ option).

              directory[,gs] - [ATA only] if the device supports  the  General
              Purpose  Logging  feature set (ATA-6 and above) then this prints
              the Log Directory (the log at address  0).   The  Log  Directory
              shows  what  logs are available and their length in sectors (512
              bytes).  The contents of the logs at address  1  [Summary  SMART
              error log] and at address 6 [SMART self-test log] may be printed
              using the previously-described error and selftest  arguments  to
              this  option.   If  your version of smartctl supports 48-bit ATA
              commands, both the General Purpose Log (GPL) and SMART Log  (SL)
              directories are printed in one combined table. The output can be
              restricted to the GPL directory or SL directory  by  ´-l  direc‐
              tory,q´ or ´-l directory,s´ respectively.

              background - [SCSI only] the background scan results log outputs
              information derived from Background Media Scans (BMS) done after
              power  up  and/or  periodically  (e.g. every 24 hours) on recent
              SCSI disks. If supported, the BMS status is output first,  indi‐
              cating  whether  a background scan is currently underway (and if
              so a progress percentage), the amount of time the disk has  been
              powered up and the number of scans already completed. Then there
              is a header and a line for each background scan  "event".  These
              will typically be either recovered or unrecoverable errors. That
              latter group may need some attention. There is a description  of
              the  background scan mechanism in section 4.18 of SBC-3 revision
              6 (see www.t10.org ).

              scttemp, scttempsts, scttemphist - [ATA only]  prints  the  disk
              temperature  information provided by the SMART Command Transport
              (SCT) commands.  The option ´scttempsts´ prints current tempera‐
              ture  and temperature ranges returned by the SCT Status command,
              ´scttemphist´ prints temperature limits and the temperature his‐
              tory table returned by the SCT Data Table command, and ´scttemp´
              prints both.  The temperature values are preserved across  power
              cycles.   The  logging  interval  can be configured with the ´-l
              scttempint,N[,p]´ option, see  below.   The  SCT  commands  were
              introduced  in  ATA8-ACS  and  were also supported by many ATA-7
              disks.

              scttempint,N[,p] - [ATA only] clears the SCT temperature history
              table  and  sets  the time interval for temperature logging to N
              minutes.  If ´,p´ is specified, the setting is preserved  across
              power  cycles.   Otherwise,  the setting is volatile and will be
              reverted to the last  non-volatile  setting  by  the  next  hard
              reset.   The default interval is vendor specific, typical values
              are 1, 2, or 5 minutes.

              scterc[,READTIME,WRITETIME]  -  [ATA  only]  prints  values  and
              descriptions  of  the SCT Error Recovery Control settings. These
              are equivalent to TLER (as used by Western  Digital),  CCTL  (as
              used  by Samsung and Hitachi/HGST) and ERC (as used by Seagate).
              READTIME and WRITETIME arguments (deciseconds) set the specified
              values.  Values of 0 disable the feature, other values less than
              65 are probably not supported. For RAID configurations, this  is
              typically set to 70,70 deciseconds.

              devstat[,PAGE]  -  [ATA  only] prints values and descriptions of
              the ATA Device Statistics log pages (General Purpose Log address
              0x04).   If  no  PAGE number is specified, entries from all sup‐
              ported pages are printed.  If PAGE 0 is specified, the  list  of
              supported pages is printed.  Device Statistics was introduced in
              ACS-2 and is only supported by some recent devices.

              sataphy[,reset] - [SATA only] prints values and descriptions  of
              the  SATA Phy Event Counters (General Purpose Log address 0x11).
              If ´-l sataphy,reset´ is specified, all counters are reset after
              reading  the  values.   This  also  works  for SATA devices with
              Packet interface like CD/DVD drives.

              sasphy[,reset] - [SAS (SCSI) only] prints  values  and  descrip‐
              tions  of  the  SAS  (SSP)  Protocol Specific log page (log page
              0x18).  If ´-l sasphy,reset´  is  specified,  all  counters  are
              reset after reading the values.

              gplog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]]  -  [ATA only] prints a hex dump
              of any log accessible via General Purpose Logging (GPL) feature.
              The log address ADDR is the hex address listed in the log direc‐
              tory (see ´-l directory´  above).   The  range  of  log  sectors
              (pages)  can  be  specified  by  decimal  values  FIRST-LAST  or
              FIRST+SIZE.  FIRST defaults to 0, SIZE defaults to 1.  LAST  can
              be set to ´max´ to specify the last page of the log.

              smartlog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]]  -  [ATA  only]  prints a hex
              dump of any log accessible via SMART Read Log command.  See  ´-l
              gplog,...´ above for parameter syntax.

              For example, all these commands:
                smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10-15 /dev/sda
                smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10+6 /dev/sda
                smartctl -l smartlog,0x80,10-15 /dev/sda
              print pages 10-15 of log 0x80 (first host vendor specific log).

              The  hex  dump  format  is compatible with the ´xxd -r´ command.
              This command:
                smartctl -l gplog,0x11 /dev/sda | grep ^0 | xxd -r >log.bin
              writes a binary representation of the one sector log 0x11  (SATA
              Phy Event Counters) to file log.bin.

              nvmelog,PAGE,SIZE  -  [NVMe  only]  [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and
              Cygwin only] [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE]  prints  a  hex
              dump  of  the first SIZE bytes from the NVMe log with identifier
              PAGE.  PAGE is a hexadecimal number in the  range  from  0x1  to
              0xff.   SIZE  is  a  hexadecimal number in the range from 0x4 to
              0x4000 (16 KiB).  WARNING: Do not specify the identifier  of  an
              unknown  log page.  Reading a log page may have undesirable side
              effects.

              ssd - [ATA] prints the Solid State Device Statistics  log  page.
              This has the same effect as ´-l devstat,7´, see above.

              ssd  -  [SCSI]  prints  the  Solid  State  Media percentage used
              endurance indicator. A value of 0  indicates  as  new  condition
              while  100 indicates the device is at the end of its lifetime as
              projected by the manufacturer. The value may reach 255.

       -v   ID,FORMAT[:BYTEORDER][,NAME],   --vendorattribute=ID,FORMAT[:BYTE‐
       ORDER][,NAME]
              [ATA  only]  Sets  a  vendor-specific raw value print FORMAT, an
              optional BYTEORDER and an optional NAME for Attribute ID.   This
              option may be used multiple times.

              The  Attribute ID can be in the range 1 to 255. If ´N´ is speci‐
              fied as ID, the settings for all Attributes are changed.

              The optional BYTEORDER consists of 1 to 8  characters  from  the
              set ´012345rvwz´. The characters ´0´ to ´5´ select the byte 0 to
              5 from the 48-bit raw value, ´r´ selects the  reserved  byte  of
              the  attribute data block, ´v´ selects the normalized value, ´w´
              selects the worst value  and  ´z´  inserts  a  zero  byte.   The
              default  BYTEORDER is ´543210´ for all 48-bit formats, ´r543210´
              for the 54-bit formats, and ´543210wv´ for the  64-bit  formats.
              For  example,  ´-v  5,raw48:012345´  prints  the  raw  value  of
              attribute 5 with big endian instead of little endian byte order‐
              ing.

              The  NAME  is  a  string of letters, digits and underscore.  Its
              length should not exceed 23 characters.  The ´-P showall´ option
              reports an error if this is the case.

              -v  help  -  Prints (to STDOUT) a list of all valid arguments to
              this option, then exits.

              Valid arguments for FORMAT are:

              raw8 - Print the Raw value as six 8-bit unsigned  base-10  inte‐
              gers.   This  may  be useful for decoding the meaning of the Raw
              value.

              raw16 - Print the Raw value as  three  16-bit  unsigned  base-10
              integers.   This  may  be useful for decoding the meaning of the
              Raw value.

              raw48 - Print the Raw value as a 48-bit unsigned  base-10  inte‐
              ger.  This is the default for most attributes.

              hex48  -  Print  the Raw value as a 12 digit hexadecimal number.
              This may be useful for decoding the meaning of the Raw value.

              raw56 - Print the Raw value as a 54-bit unsigned  base-10  inte‐
              ger.   This  includes the reserved byte which follows the 48-bit
              raw value.

              hex56 - Print the Raw value as a 14  digit  hexadecimal  number.
              This  includes  the  reserved  byte which follows the 48-bit raw
              value.

              raw64 - Print the Raw value as a 64-bit unsigned  base-10  inte‐
              ger.   This  includes  two  bytes  from the normalized and worst
              attribute value.  This raw format is used by  some  SSD  devices
              with Indilinx controller.

              hex64  -  Print  the Raw value as a 16 digit hexadecimal number.
              This includes two bytes from the normalized and worst  attribute
              value.   This raw format is used by some SSD devices with Indil‐
              inx controller.

              min2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time in minutes.   Its  raw
              value  will  be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym".  Here X is hours,
              and Y is minutes in the  range  0-59  inclusive.   Y  is  always
              printed with two digits, for example "06" or "31" or "00".

              sec2hour  -  Raw Attribute is power-on time in seconds.  Its raw
              value will be displayed in  the  form  "Xh+Ym+Zs".   Here  X  is
              hours,  Y  is minutes in the range 0-59 inclusive, and Z is sec‐
              onds in the range 0-59 inclusive.  Y and Z  are  always  printed
              with two digits, for example "06" or "31" or "00".

              halfmin2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time, measured in units
              of 30 seconds.  This format is used by some Samsung disks.   Its
              raw  value  will  be  displayed  in the form "Xh+Ym".  Here X is
              hours, and Y is minutes in  the  range  0-59  inclusive.   Y  is
              always  printed  with  two  digits,  for example "06" or "31" or
              "00".

              msec24hour32 - Raw Attribute is power-on time measured in 32-bit
              hours  and  24-bit milliseconds since last hour update.  It will
              be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym+Z.Ms".  Here X is  hours,  Y  is
              minutes, Z is seconds and M is milliseconds.

              tempminmax  -  Raw Attribute is the disk temperature in Celsius.
              Info about Min/Max temperature is printed if available.  This is
              the  default for Attributes 190 and 194.  The recording interval
              (lifetime, last power cycle, last soft  reset)  of  the  min/max
              values is device specific.

              temp10x  -  Raw  Attribute  is ten times the disk temperature in
              Celsius.

              raw16(raw16) - Print the raw attribute as a 16-bit value and two
              optional  16-bit values if these words are nonzero.  This is the
              default for Attributes 5 and 196.

              raw16(avg16) - Raw attribute is spin-up time.  It is printed  as
              a  16-bit  value  and  an optional "Average" 16-bit value if the
              word is nonzero.  This is the default for Attribute 3.

              raw24(raw8) - Print the raw attribute  as  a  24-bit  value  and
              three optional 8-bit values if these bytes are nonzero.  This is
              the default for Attribute 9.

              raw24/raw24 - Raw Attribute  contains  two  24-bit  values.  The
              first is the number of load cycles.  The second is the number of
              unload cycles.  The difference between these two values  is  the
              number  of  times  that  the  drive was unexpectedly powered off
              (also called an emergency unload).  As  a  rule  of  thumb,  the
              mechanical  stress created by one emergency unload is equivalent
              to that created by one hundred normal unloads.

              raw24/raw32 - Raw attribute is an error rate which consists of a
              24-bit error count and a 32-bit total count.

              The following old arguments to ´-v´ are also still valid:

              9,minutes - same as: 9,min2hour,Power_On_Minutes.

              9,seconds - same as: 9,sec2hour,Power_On_Seconds.

              9,halfminutes - same as: 9,halfmin2hour,Power_On_Half_Minutes.

              9,temp - same as: 9,tempminmax,Temperature_Celsius.

              192,emergencyretractcyclect          -          same         as:
              192,raw48,Emerg_Retract_Cycle_Ct

              193,loadunload - same as: 193,raw24/raw24.

              194,10xCelsius - same as: 194,temp10x,Temperature_Celsius_x10.

              194,unknown - same as: 194,raw48,Unknown_Attribute.

              197,increasing - same as: 197,raw48,Total_Pending_Sectors.  Also
              means  that  Attribute number 197 (Current Pending Sector Count)
              is not reset  if  uncorrectable  sectors  are  reallocated  (see
              smartd.conf(5) man page).

              198,increasing  -  same  as:  198,raw48,Total_Offl_Uncorrectabl.
              Also means that Attribute number 198 (Offline Uncorrectable Sec‐
              tor Count) is not reset if uncorrectable sectors are reallocated
              (see smartd.conf(5) man page).

              198,offlinescanuncsectorct    -    same    as:    198,raw48,Off‐
              line_Scan_UNC_SectCt.

              200,writeerrorcount - same as: 200,raw48,Write_Error_Count.

              201,detectedtacount - same as: 201,raw48,Detected_TA_Count.

              220,temp - same as: 220,tempminmax,Temperature_Celsius.

       -F TYPE, --firmwarebug=TYPE
              [ATA  only]  Modifies the behavior of smartctl to compensate for
              some known and understood device firmware or driver  bug.   This
              option may be used multiple times.  The valid arguments are:

              none  - Assume that the device firmware obeys the ATA specifica‐
              tions.  This is the default, unless the device has  presets  for
              ´-F´  in  the  drive database.  Using this option on the command
              line will override any preset values.

              nologdir - Suppresses read attempts of SMART or  GP  Log  Direc‐
              tory.   Support  for  all  standard  logs  is assumed without an
              actual check.  Some Intel SSDs may freeze if log  address  0  is
              read.

              samsung - In some Samsung disks (example: model SV4012H Firmware
              Version: RM100-08) some of the two- and four-byte quantities  in
              the  SMART data structures are byte-swapped (relative to the ATA
              specification).  Enabling this option tells smartctl to evaluate
              these  quantities  in byte-reversed order.  Some signs that your
              disk needs this option are (1) no self-test  log  printed,  even
              though  you  have  run self-tests; (2) very large numbers of ATA
              errors reported in the ATA error log; (3) strange and impossible
              values for the ATA error log timestamps.

              samsung2  -  In  some  Samsung  disks  the  number of ATA errors
              reported is byte swapped.  Enabling this option  tells  smartctl
              to  evaluate this quantity in byte-reversed order. An indication
              that your Samsung disk needs this option is that  the  self-test
              log  is  printed correctly, but there are a very large number of
              errors in the SMART error log.  This is because the error  count
              is  byte  swapped.   Thus  a disk with five errors (0x0005) will
              appear to have 20480 errors (0x5000).

              samsung3 - Some Samsung disks (at least  SP2514N  with  Firmware
              VF100-37) report a self-test still in progress with 0% remaining
              when the test was already completed. Enabling this option  modi‐
              fies  the  output of the self-test execution status (see options
              ´-c´ or ´-a´ above) accordingly.

              xerrorlba - Fixes LBA byte ordering  in  Extended  Comprehensive
              SMART  error  log.   Some  disks use little endian byte ordering
              instead of ATA register ordering to specifiy the  LBA  addresses
              in the log entries.

              swapid  -  Fixes byte swapped ATA identify strings (device name,
              serial number, firmware version) returned by some  buggy  device
              drivers.

       -P TYPE, --presets=TYPE
              [ATA  only]  Specifies  whether  smartctl  should use any preset
              options that are available for this drive. By  default,  if  the
              drive is recognized in the smartmontools database, then the pre‐
              sets are used.

              The argument show will show any preset options  for  your  drive
              and  the  argument  showall  will  show  all known drives in the
              smartmontools database, along with  their  preset  options.   If
              there  are  no presets for your drive and you think there should
              be (for example, a -v or -F option is needed to get smartctl  to
              display  correct  values)  then please contact the smartmontools
              developers so that this information can be added to  the  smart‐
              montools  database.   Contact  information is at the end of this
              man page.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              use - if a drive is recognized, then use the stored presets  for
              it.   This  is  the default. Note that presets will NOT override
              additional Attribute interpretation (´-v N,something´)  command-
              line options or explicit ´-F´ command-line options..

              ignore - do not use presets.

              show  -  show if the drive is recognized in the database, and if
              so, its presets, then exit.

              showall - list all recognized drives, and the presets  that  are
              set  for  them,  then exit.  This also checks the drive database
              regular expressions and settings for syntax errors.

              The ´-P showall´ option takes up to two  optional  arguments  to
              match a specific drive type and firmware version. The command:
                smartctl -P showall
              lists all entries, the command:
                smartctl -P showall ´MODEL´
              lists all entries matching MODEL, and the command:
                smartctl -P showall ´MODEL´ ´FIRMWARE´
              lists  all  entries  for this MODEL and a specific FIRMWARE ver‐
              sion.

       -B [+]FILE, --drivedb=[+]FILE
              [ATA only] Read the drive database from FILE.  The new  database
              replaces the built in database by default.  If ´+´ is specified,
              then the new entries prepend the built in entries.

              Optional entries are read from the file /etc/smart_drivedb.h  if
              this option is not specified.

              If /var/lib/smartmontools/drivedb/drivedb.h is present, the con‐
              tents of this file is used instead of the built in table.

              Run /usr/sbin/update-smart-drivedb to update this file from  the
              smartmontools SVN repository.

              The  database  files  use  the same C/C++ syntax that is used to
              initialize the built in database array. C/C++ style comments are
              allowed.  Example:

                /* Full entry: */
                {
                  "Model family",    // Info about model family/series.
                  "MODEL1.*REGEX",   // Regular expression to match model of device.
                  "VERSION.*REGEX",  // Regular expression to match firmware version(s).
                  "Some warning",    // Warning message.
                  "-v 9,minutes"     // String of preset -v and -F options.
                },
                /* Minimal entry: */
                {
                  "",                // No model family/series info.
                  "MODEL2.*REGEX",   // Regular expression to match model of device.
                  "",                // All firmware versions.
                  "",                // No warning.
                  ""                 // No options preset.
                },
                /* USB ID entry: */
                {
                  "USB: Device; Bridge", // Info about USB device and bridge name.
                  "0x1234:0xabcd",   // Regular expression to match vendor:product ID.
                  "0x0101",          // Regular expression to match bcdDevice.
                  "",                // Not used.
                  "-d sat"           // String with device type option.
                },
                /* ... */

       SMART RUN/ABORT OFFLINE TEST AND self-test OPTIONS:

       -t TEST, --test=TEST
              Executes  TEST immediately.  The ´-C´ option can be used in con‐
              junction with this option to run the short or long (and also for
              ATA devices, selective or conveyance) self-tests in captive mode
              (known as "foreground mode" for SCSI devices).  Note  that  only
              one test type can be run at a time, so only one test type should
              be specified per command line.  Note also that if a computer  is
              shutdown  or  power  cycled  during  a self-test, no harm should
              result.  The self-test will either be  aborted  or  will  resume
              automatically.

              All  ´-t TEST´ commands can be given during normal system opera‐
              tion unless captive mode (´-C´ option) is used.  A running self-
              test  can,  however, degrade performance of the drive.  Frequent
              I/O requests from the operating system increase the duration  of
              a test.  These impacts may vary from device to device.

              If  a  test  failure  occurs then the device may discontinue the
              testing and report the result immediately.

              The valid arguments to this option are:

              offline - [ATA] runs SMART Immediate Offline Test.  This immedi‐
              ately  starts  the  test  described  above.  This command can be
              given during normal system operation.  The effects of this  test
              are  visible only in that it updates the SMART Attribute values,
              and if errors are found they will appear in the SMART error log,
              visible with the ´-l error´ option.

              If  the  ´-c´  option  to smartctl shows that the device has the
              "Suspend Offline collection upon new  command"  capability  then
              you  can  track the progress of the Immediate Offline test using
              the ´-c´ option to smartctl.  If the ´-c´ option show  that  the
              device has the "Abort Offline collection upon new command" capa‐
              bility then most commands will abort the Immediate Offline Test,
              so  you  should  not  try to track the progress of the test with
              ´-c´, as it will abort the test.

              offline - [SCSI] runs the default self test  in  foreground.  No
              entry is placed in the self test log.

              short - [ATA] runs SMART Short Self Test (usually under ten min‐
              utes).  This command can be given during normal system operation
              (unless  run in captive mode - see the ´-C´ option below).  This
              is a test in a different category than the  immediate  or  auto‐
              matic  offline tests.  The "Self" tests check the electrical and
              mechanical performance as well as the read  performance  of  the
              disk.   Their  results  are reported in the Self Test Error Log,
              readable with the ´-l selftest´ option.  Note that on some disks
              the  progress of the self-test can be monitored by watching this
              log during the self-test; with other disks use the  ´-c´  option
              to monitor progress.

              short - [SCSI] runs the "Background short" self-test.

              long  -  [ATA]  runs SMART Extended Self Test (tens of minutes).
              This is a longer and more thorough version  of  the  Short  Self
              Test  described above.  Note that this command can be given dur‐
              ing normal system operation (unless run in captive  mode  -  see
              the ´-C´ option below).

              long - [SCSI] runs the "Background long" self-test.

              conveyance  - [ATA only] runs a SMART Conveyance Self Test (min‐
              utes).  This self-test routine is intended  to  identify  damage
              incurred  during transporting of the device. This self-test rou‐
              tine should take on the order of minutes to complete.  Note that
              this command can be given during normal system operation (unless
              run in captive mode - see the ´-C´ option below).

              select,N-M, select,N+SIZE - [ATA only] runs  a  SMART  Selective
              Self  Test,  to  test  a  range  of disk Logical Block Addresses
              (LBAs), rather than the entire disk.  Each range of LBAs that is
              checked  is  called  a "span" and is specified by a starting LBA
              (N) and an ending LBA (M) with N less than or equal  to  M.  The
              range  can  also  be specified as N+SIZE. A span at the end of a
              disk can be specified by N-max.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
                smartctl -t select,10+11 /dev/sda
              both runs a self test on one span  consisting  of  LBAs  ten  to
              twenty (inclusive). The command:
                smartctl -t select,100000000-max /dev/sda
              run  a  self  test from LBA 100000000 up to the end of the disk.
              The ´-t´ option can be given up to five times,  to  test  up  to
              five spans.  For example the command:
                smartctl -t select,0-100 -t select,1000-2000 /dev/sda
              runs  a  self test on two spans.  The first span consists of 101
              LBAs and the second span consists of 1001 LBAs.  Note  that  the
              spans can overlap partially or completely, for example:
                smartctl -t select,0-10 -t select,5-15 -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
              The  results  of  the  selective self-test can be obtained (both
              during and after the test) by printing the SMART self-test  log,
              using the ´-l selftest´ option to smartctl.

              Selective  self tests are particularly useful as disk capacities
              increase: an extended self test (smartctl -t long) can take sev‐
              eral  hours.  Selective self-tests are helpful if (based on SYS‐
              LOG error messages, previous failed self-tests, or  SMART  error
              log  entries)  you  suspect  that a disk is having problems at a
              particular range of Logical Block Addresses (LBAs).

              Selective self-tests can be run during normal  system  operation
              (unless done in captive mode - see the ´-C´ option below).

              The  following  variants  of the selective self-test command use
              spans based on the ranges from past tests already stored on  the
              disk:

              select,redo[+SIZE]  -  [ATA  only] redo the last SMART Selective
              Self Test using the same LBA range. The starting LBA is  identi‐
              cal  to  the LBA used by last test, same for ending LBA unless a
              new span size is specified by optional +SIZE argument.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
                smartctl -t select,redo /dev/sda
                smartctl -t select,redo+20 /dev/sda
              have the same effect as:
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
                smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
                smartctl -t select,10-29 /dev/sda

              select,next[+SIZE] - [ATA only] runs a SMART Selective Self Test
              on  the  LBA range which follows the range of the last test. The
              starting LBA is set to (ending LBA +1) of the last test.  A  new
              span size may be specified by the optional +SIZE argument.

              For example the commands:
                smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/sda
                smartctl -t select,next /dev/sda
                smartctl -t select,next+2000 /dev/sda
              have the same effect as:
                smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/sda
                smartctl -t select,1000-1999 /dev/sda
                smartctl -t select,2000-3999 /dev/sda

              If  the  last  test  ended  at the last LBA of the disk, the new
              range starts at LBA 0. The span size of the last span of a  disk
              is  adjusted  such  that  the total number of spans to check the
              full  disk  will  not  be  changed  by  future   uses   of   ´-t
              select,next´.

              select,cont[+SIZE] - [ATA only] performs a ´redo´ (above) if the
              self test status reports that the last test was aborted  by  the
              host. Otherwise it run the ´next´ (above) test.

              afterselect,on - [ATA only] perform an offline read scan after a
              Selective self-test has completed.  This  option  must  be  used
              together  with  one  or more of the select,N-M options above. If
              the LBAs that have been specified  in  the  Selective  self-test
              pass the test with no errors found, then read scan the remainder
              of the disk.  If the device is powered-cycled  while  this  read
              scan is in progress, the read scan will be automatically resumed
              after a time specified by the pending timer  (see  below).   The
              value of this option is preserved between selective self-tests.

              afterselect,off  -  [ATA only] do not read scan the remainder of
              the disk after a Selective self-test has completed.  This option
              must  be use together with one or more of the select,N-M options
              above.  The value of this option is preserved between  selective
              self-tests.

              pending,N  -  [ATA only] set the pending offline read scan timer
              to N minutes.  Here N is an integer in the range from 0 to 65535
              inclusive.   If  the  device  is  powered off during a read scan
              after a Selective self-test, then resume the test  automatically
              N minutes after power-up.  This option must be use together with
              one or more of the select,N-M options above. The value  of  this
              option is preserved between selective self-tests.

              vendor,N  - [ATA only] issues the ATA command SMART EXECUTE OFF-
              LINE IMMEDIATE with subcommand N in LBA LOW register.  The  sub‐
              command  is  specified as a hex value in the range 0x00 to 0xff.
              Subcommands 0x40-0x7e and 0x90-0xff are reserved for vendor spe‐
              cific  use,  see  table 61 of T13/1699-D Revision 6a (ATA8-ACS).
              Note that the subcommands 0x00-0x04,0x7f,0x81-0x84 are supported
              by  other  smartctl  options (e.g. 0x01: ´-t short´, 0x7f: ´-X´,
              0x82: ´-C -t long´).

              WARNING: Only run subcommands documented by the  vendor  of  the
              device.

              Example  for some Intel SSDs only: The subcommand 0x40 (´-t ven‐
              dor,0x40´) clears the timed workload  related  SMART  attributes
              (226,  227,  228).  Note that the raw values of these attributes
              are held at 65535 (0xffff) until the workload timer  reaches  60
              minutes.

              force - start new self-test even if another test is already run‐
              ning.  By default a running self-test will not be interrupted to
              begin another test.

       -C, --captive
              [ATA]  Runs self-tests in captive mode.  This has no effect with
              ´-t offline´ or if the ´-t´ option is not used.

              WARNING: Tests run in captive mode may busy out  the  drive  for
              the  length of the test.  Only run captive tests on drives with‐
              out any mounted partitions!

              [SCSI] Runs the self-test in "Foreground" mode.

       -X, --abort
              Aborts non-captive SMART Self Tests.   Note  that  this  command
              will  abort the Offline Immediate Test routine only if your disk
              has the "Abort Offline collection upon new command" capability.

ATA, SCSI command sets and SAT
       In the past there has been a clear distinction between storage  devices
       that  used  the  ATA  and SCSI command sets. This distinction was often
       reflected in their device naming and hardware. Now various SCSI  trans‐
       ports  (e.g.  SAS,  FC  and  iSCSI) can interconnect to both SCSI disks
       (e.g. FC and SAS) and ATA disks (especially SATA). USB  and  IEEE  1394
       storage  devices  use the SCSI command set externally but almost always
       contain ATA or SATA disks (or flash). The storage  subsystems  in  some
       operating  systems  have  started to remove the distinction between ATA
       and SCSI in their device naming policies.

       99% of operations that an OS  performs  on  a  disk  involve  the  SCSI
       INQUIRY,  READ  CAPACITY, READ and WRITE commands, or their ATA equiva‐
       lents. Since the SCSI commands are slightly more general than their ATA
       equivalents,  many  OSes  are generating SCSI commands (mainly READ and
       WRITE) and letting a lower level translate them to  their  ATA  equiva‐
       lents  as the need arises. An important note here is that "lower level"
       may be in external equipment and hence outside the control of an OS.

       SCSI to ATA Translation (SAT) is a standard (ANSI INCITS 431-2007) that
       specifies  how this translation is done. For the other 1% of operations
       that an OS performs on a disk, SAT provides two options.  First  is  an
       optional  ATA  PASS-THROUGH  SCSI command (there are two variants). The
       second is a translation from the closest  SCSI  command.  Most  current
       interest is in the "pass-through" option.

       The  relevance to smartmontools (and hence smartctl) is that its inter‐
       actions with disks fall solidly into the "1%" category. So even if  the
       OS  can  happily treat (and name) a disk as "SCSI", smartmontools needs
       to detect the native command set and act accordingly.  As more  storage
       manufacturers  (including external SATA drives) comply with SAT, smart‐
       montools is able to automatically distinguish the native command set of
       the  device. In some cases the '-d sat' option is needed on the command
       line.

       There are also virtual disks which typically have no useful information
       to  convey  to  smartmontools,  but could conceivably in the future. An
       example of a virtual disk is the OS's view of a RAID 1 box.  There  are
       most  likely  two SATA disks inside a RAID 1 box. Addressing those SATA
       disks from a distant OS  is  a  challenge  for  smartmontools.  Another
       approach  is  running  a  tool like smartmontools inside the RAID 1 box
       (e.g.  a Network Attached Storage (NAS) box) and fetching the logs  via
       a browser.

EXAMPLES
       smartctl -a /dev/sda
       Print a large amount of SMART information for drive /dev/sda .

       smartctl -s off /dev/sdd
       Disable SMART monitoring and data log collection on drive /dev/sdd .

       smartctl --smart=on --offlineauto=on --saveauto=on /dev/sda
       Enable  SMART on drive /dev/sda, enable automatic offline testing every
       four hours, and enable autosaving of SMART Attributes.  This is a  good
       start-up line for your system´s init files.  You can issue this command
       on a running system.

       smartctl -t long /dev/sdc
       Begin an extended self-test of drive /dev/sdc.  You can issue this com‐
       mand on a running system.  The results can be seen in the self-test log
       visible with the ´-l selftest´ option after it has completed.

       smartctl -s on -t offline /dev/sda
       Enable SMART on the disk, and begin an immediate offline test of  drive
       /dev/sda.  You can issue this command on a running system.  The results
       are only used to update the SMART Attributes,  visible  with  the  ´-A´
       option.  If any device errors occur, they are logged to the SMART error
       log, which can be seen with the ´-l error´ option.

       smartctl -A -v 9,minutes /dev/sda
       Shows the vendor Attributes, when the disk  stores  its  power-on  time
       internally in minutes rather than hours.

       smartctl -q errorsonly -H -l selftest /dev/sda
       Produces  output only if the device returns failing SMART status, or if
       some of the logged self-tests ended with errors.

       smartctl -q silent -a /dev/sda
       Examine all SMART data for device /dev/sda, but produce no printed out‐
       put.  You must use the exit status (the $?  shell variable) to learn if
       any Attributes are out of bound, if the SMART  status  is  failing,  if
       there  are errors recorded in the self-test log, or if there are errors
       recorded in the disk error log.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/sda
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       controller card.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       6000/7000/8000 controller card.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twa0
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       9000 controller card.

       smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twl0
       Examine all SMART data for the first SATA (not SAS) disk connected to a
       3ware RAID 9750 controller card.

       smartctl -t short -d 3ware,3 /dev/sdb
       Start a short self-test on the fourth ATA disk connected to  the  3ware
       RAID controller card which is the second SCSI device /dev/sdb.

       smartctl -t long -d areca,4 /dev/sg2
       Start  a  long  self-test on the fourth SATA disk connected to an Areca
       RAID controller addressed by /dev/sg2.

       smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda (under Linux)
       smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/hptrr (under FreeBSD)
       Examine all SMART data for the (S)ATA disk directly  connected  to  the
       third channel of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl -t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/sda (under Linux)
       smartctl -t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/hptrr (under FreeBSD)
       Start  a  short self-test on the (S)ATA disk connected to second pmport
       on the first channel of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl -t select,10-100 -t select,30-300 -t afterselect,on -t pending,45 /dev/sda
       Run a selective self-test on LBAs 10 to 100 and 30 to 300.   After  the
       these  LBAs  have been tested, read-scan the remainder of the disk.  If
       the disk is power-cycled during the read-scan, resume the scan 45  min‐
       utes after power to the device is restored.

       smartctl -a -d cciss,0 /dev/cciss/c0d0
       Examine  all  SMART  data  for the first SCSI disk connected to a cciss
       RAID controller card.

EXIT STATUS
       The exit statuses of smartctl are defined by a bitmask.  If all is well
       with  the  disk,  the  exit status (return value) of smartctl is 0 (all
       bits turned off).  If a problem occurs, or an error,  potential  error,
       or  fault  is  detected,  then  a non-zero status is returned.  In this
       case, the eight different bits in the exit status  have  the  following
       meanings  for  ATA disks; some of these values may also be returned for
       SCSI disks.

       Bit 0: Command line did not parse.

       Bit 1: Device open failed, device did not  return  an  IDENTIFY  DEVICE
              structure,  or  device  is  in a low-power mode (see ´-n´ option
              above).

       Bit 2: Some SMART or other ATA command to the disk failed, or there was
              a  checksum  error  in  a  SMART data structure (see ´-b´ option
              above).

       Bit 3: SMART status check returned "DISK FAILING".

       Bit 4: We found prefail Attributes <= threshold.

       Bit 5: SMART status check returned "DISK OK" but  we  found  that  some
              (usage  or  prefail)  Attributes  have been <= threshold at some
              time in the past.

       Bit 6: The device error log contains records of errors.

       Bit 7: The device self-test log contains records of errors.  [ATA only]
              Failed  self-tests outdated by a newer successful extended self-
              test are ignored.

       To test within the shell for whether or  not  the  different  bits  are
       turned on or off, you can use the following type of construction (which
       should work with any POSIX compatible shell):
       smartstat=$(($? & 8))
       This looks at only at bit 3 of the exit status $?  (since 8=2^3).   The
       shell  variable  $smartstat  will  be  nonzero  if  SMART  status check
       returned "disk failing" and zero otherwise.

       This shell script prints all status bits:
       val=$?; mask=1
       for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7; do
         echo "Bit $i: $(((val & mask) && 1))"
         mask=$((mask << 1))
       done

FILES
       /usr/sbin/smartctl
              full path of this executable.

       /var/lib/smartmontools/drivedb/drivedb.h
              drive database (see ´-B´ option).

       /etc/smart_drivedb.h
              optional local drive database (see ´-B´ option).

AUTHORS
       Bruce Allen (project initiator),
       Christian Franke  (project  manager,  Windows  port  and  all  sort  of
       things),
       Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem),
       Volker Kuhlmann (moderator of support and database mailing list),
       Gabriele Pohl (wiki & development team support),
       Alex Samorukov (FreeBSD port and more, new Trac wiki).

       Many  other  individuals  have  made contributions and corrections, see
       AUTHORS, ChangeLog and repository files.

       The first smartmontools code was derived from the  smartsuite  package,
       written by Michael Cornwell and Andre Hedrick.

REPORTING BUGS
       To submit a bug report, create a ticket in smartmontools wiki:
       <http://www.smartmontools.org/>.
       Alternatively send the info to the smartmontools support mailing list:
       <https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/smartmontools-support>.

SEE ALSO
       smartd(8).
       update-smart-drivedb(8).

REFERENCES
       Please  see  the following web site for more info: http://www.smartmon‐
       tools.org/

       An introductory article about smartmontools is  Monitoring  Hard  Disks
       with  SMART,  by Bruce Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004, pages 74-77.
       This is http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/6983 online.

       If you would like to understand better how SMART  works,  and  what  it
       does,  a good place to start is with Sections 4.8 and 6.54 of the first
       volume of the ´AT Attachment  with  Packet  Interface-7´  (ATA/ATAPI-7)
       specification  Revision  4b.   This  documents  the SMART functionality
       which the smartmontools utilities provide access to.

       The functioning of SMART was originally defined by the SFF-8035i  revi‐
       sion 2 and the SFF-8055i revision 1.4 specifications.  These are publi‐
       cations of the Small Form Factors (SFF) Committee.

       Links to these and other documents may be found on the  Links  page  of
       the smartmontools Wiki at http://www.smartmontools.org/wiki/Links .

PACKAGE VERSION
       smartmontools-6.6 2016-05-31 r4324
       $Id: smartctl.8.in 4311 2016-04-27 21:03:01Z chrfranke $

smartmontools-6.6                 2016-05-31                       SMARTCTL(8)
posted by 수수 파인진

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나만그런가? 2020. 6. 23. 16:30


원래는 나노블럭 미니언즈..
아주 작은 블럭이 겹겹이 쌓이고 쌓이고 쌓여..
인내의 시간이 흘러 미니언즈가 완성... 되려는 순간..
블럭하나 잘못 밀면 미니언즈가 꿀렁이는 모습이 되는 미니언즈 나노블럭 !

손톱보다도 작은 단단한 조각들

미니언즈를 해체? 하고 나서 만든 것이...

조립하기가 무척 힘들다 . 힘줘서 맞추다 결국 손에 상처남.

손에 손잡고를 만들어버린 아이들.
자꾸만 손에 상처가 나서 금지령을 내렸지만..
어느샌가 뚝딱뚝딱.
만들고 나서 보니 귀엽네.

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posted by 수수 파인진

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AWS 2020. 6. 21. 20:23


인스턴스 종류를 변경하기 위해 중지를 하였습니다.

컴퓨텅 파워를 올리고 시작을 하니 기분 만큼이나 빨리 부팅이 된것 같았습니다.

 

허걱~

OS 세팅 이미지 초기 이미지로 부팅이 된것 같은 불안한 느낌이 왔습니다.

확인해보니 최근 데이터가 하나도 없었습니다.

인터넷 어디를 찾아 보아도 방법이 없었고,AWS 문의를 해도 답이 없었고,한국 담당자에 메일을 보내도 주말이라 답이 없었다.

 

사용법

OS 및 데이터 볼륨을 스냅샷을 생성합니다.
생성된 스냅삿으로 볼륨을 생성합니다.
생성된 볼륨을 다른 OS마운트하여 데이터 유무를 확인하였습니다.
새로운 OS를 작동하여 생성된 볼륨을 조정하여 연결 하였습니다.
짜잔 정상으로 복구가 되었습니다.
~반전..

위 방법으로 열심히 2시간 동안 처리 했습니다.

정리 하면서 기존 인스턴스를 처리 하는 과정에 충격적인 현상이 발생되었습니다.

이미 데이터가 복구가 되어서 안심하고 문제의 인스턴스를 리부팅했더니 정상 데이터가 들어 있었습니다.

아~

리부팅이면 해결됬구나~

허망하고 허탈한 하루였습니다.

posted by 수수 파인진

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